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الرئيسية | النادي اللغوي
 

صفحة شبكة صوت العربية في فيسبوكtwitterقناة شبكة صوت العربية في يوتيوبشبكة صوت العربية في موقع فليكر

النادي اللغوي
تأثير الخليل بن أحمد الفراهيدي والجرجاني في نظرية تشومسكي. طباعة إرسال إلى صديق
تصنيفات: بحوث لغوية
تقييم المستخدمين: / 22
سيئجيد 
الكاتب أ. د. جاسم علي جاسم   
السبت, 06 سبتمبر 2014 01:52

ملخص البحث:

إن الهدف من هذا البحث هو بيان تأثير النحو العربي - بطريقة غير مباشرة - في نظرية علم اللغة لدى تشومسكي، التي يعدها من بنات أفكاره، ولم يشأ يذكر أي أثر للنحاة العرب في شيء من هذا مطلقاً. لذلك يحاول هذا البحث جاهداً أن يبرز الخطوط الرفيعة والرئيسة التي تثبت تأثر تشومسكي بالنحو العربي؛ وذلك من خلال اللغة العبرية وترجمتها للغات الأوربية في العصور الوسطى, أو العصر الأندلسي الذي كان يعد العصر الذهبي للغة العبرية. وأن يسلط الضوء قليلاً على البنية العميقة والسطحية عند الجرجاني ومدى تأثر تشومسكي بها.

تـمـهـيــــد:

إن للخليل بن أحمد الفراهيدي مدرسة أصيلة في النحو العربي اتخذت من البصرة مقراً لها في ذلك الزمان النجيب. وأشرقت أنوارها المبينة في أرجاء المعمورة, وتتلمذ على يديه الكثير من الطلاب وأولهم وأنجبهم سيبويه. ومالبثت تلك المدرسة؛ وبعد أن خبت نارها ردحاً من الزمان، حتى أنجبت في هذا العصر عالماً لغوياً يهودياً عمل على إشعال النار من تحت الرماد مرة أخرى للنحو العربي ليهتدي به العالم ويطبقه على لغاته المختلفة. ولكن هذه المرة على خلاف السابق, فإن النحو العربي يُدَرَّس باللغة الإنجليزية، وعلى يدي أشهر عالم لغة في العصر الحديث والذي أَحْدَثَ زلزالاً لغوياً  في النحو الإنكليزي ألا وهو نوم تشومسكي.

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نظرية علـم اللغة التقابلي فـي الـتراث العـربي طباعة إرسال إلى صديق
تصنيفات: بحوث لغوية
تقييم المستخدمين: / 23
سيئجيد 
الكاتب أ. د. جاسم علي جاسم   
الأربعاء, 03 سبتمبر 2014 19:39

- تمهيد

       يهدف هذا البحث إلى بيان نظرية علم اللغة التقابلي (التحليل التقابلي) في دراسات العرب القدامى وبيان أسبقيتهم التاريخية في هذا المجال قبل علماء اللغة في أمريكا وأوربا. ولهذا سوف نقوم بالإجابة عن الأسئلة التالية:

- هل علم اللغة التقابلي هو نتاج القرن العشرين من لغويي أمريكا وأوربا؟ وإذا كان الجواب سلباً:

- هل كان تعلم ودراسة اللغات معروفاً في القديم عند العرب أم لا؟

-هل وجدت دراسات عربية قديمة أسهمت في ميدان تعليم الأصوات وتعلمها أم لا؟

- هل وجدت دراسات عربية تقابلية قديمة بين العربية وغيرها من اللغات أم لا؟

       وسنبدأ الحديث عن علم اللغة التقابلي في القرن العشرين عند علماء أمريكا وأوربا، ثم نتطرق إلى الحديث عن فرضية تعلّم اللغات سابقاً ودراستها. وبعد ذلك نعالج الدراسات العربية القديمة، التي تناولت مشكلة تعليم الأجانب للأصوات العربية وتعلمها ثالثاً. ثم نحاول الإجابة عن السؤال الرابع والأخير ألا وهو الدراسات العربية التقابلية عند علماء العرب القدامى في علم اللغة التقابلي.

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الجاحظ عالم اللغة التطبيقي طباعة إرسال إلى صديق
تقييم المستخدمين: / 35
سيئجيد 
الكاتب أ. د. جاسم علي جاسم   
الأربعاء, 03 سبتمبر 2014 19:31

الجاحظ عالم اللغة التطبيقي ([1])

شكر وتقدير:

يتقدم الباحث بجزيل الشكر والتقدير إلى إدارة الجامعة الإسلامية بالمدينة المنورة، ممثلة بعمادة البحث العلمي، التي مولَّت هذا البحث وحكَّمته حتى خرج بهذه الصيغة اللائقة.

خطة البحث:

ينقسم هذا البحث إلى مقدمة وفصلين وخاتمة وقائمة بالمصادر والمراجع. وكل فصل يتألف من عدة مباحث، وهي كالتالي:

المقدمة: وتناولت فيها: موضوع البحث، وأهميته، وأسباب اختياره، وأهدافه، ومنهجه، والدراسات السابقة، وخطة البحث.

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تطور اللغة العربية عبر التاريخ طباعة إرسال إلى صديق
تصنيفات: بحوث لغوية
تقييم المستخدمين: / 1
سيئجيد 
الكاتب مراد محمد ليمام   
السبت, 19 يوليو 2014 18:52

تأثرت اللغة العربية بمختلف المراحل التي واكبت المجتمع منذ فجر الٳسلام. فبعد مضي قرن على وفاة الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم دخلت اللغة العربية والدين الٳسلامي في دائرة اهتمام العالم ٬ وذلك من خلال امتداد استخدامها مع الفتوحات الٳسلامية متأثرة بسياقات جغرافية وتاريخية واجتماعية. فكانت أولها علاقة المواجهة بين أوروبا والعالم الٳسلامي. حينها أصبحت لغة هذا الأخير جزءا من التجربة الأوروبية. ٳلا أن هذه العلاقة كانت من طرف واحد ٬ اعتبرت خلالها العربية حلقة وصل مؤقتة لأوروبا بغية عودتها ٳلى الأصول اليونانية.
لقد اعتبر الغرب اللغة العربية – منذ فتح الأندلس ٳلى حدود القرن 15 م – مجرد حافظ للتراث الٳغريقي٬ وناقل له . أي ؛ من اليونان ٬ ٳلى الشرق ٬فٳسبانيا ثم أوروبا. حمل هذا التصور في طياته نزوعا صليبيا يحمل كراهية للظاهرة الٳسلامية ٬ ٳلى جانب النزوع التبشيري الذي يهدف وضع حد لانتشار الٳسلام.

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اللغة حياة - أ.د/عبد الله بن أحمد الفَـيْـفي طباعة إرسال إلى صديق
تصنيفات: بحوث لغوية
تقييم المستخدمين: / 1
سيئجيد 
الكاتب صوت العربية   
السبت, 12 أبريل 2014 17:01

   عادةً ما يردِّد بعض المنتصرين للعاميّة كلامًا عن (ابن خلدون) في نعت العاميّة، أو يسوقون كلامًا آخر عن (ابن الأثير الجزري). ولقد ناقشتُ ذلك في مقال سابق(1)، مشيرًا إلى أنه ينبغي فهم ما قاله هذا العَلَمان على وجهه، لا توظيفه، وكأنهما يستخفّان بالقواعد، وبأهميّتها في الحفاظ على هويّة العربيّة. هما يقولان، بجلاء، إن العاميّة فيها بلاغة أيضًا. وهذا لا جدال فيه. بل إن أيّ لغةٍ في العالم، أو لهجة دارجة، لا تخلو من بلاغة. غير أن القضية، في البدء والمنتهى، ليست في البلاغة، بل في بناء اللغة، وفي آليات نقلها المعنى وتلقِّيه، وفي كيانها، بوصفها حاملة تراث ومستودع حضارة ودِين. وهذا معنى القول: «إن الجهل بالنحو لا يقدح في فصاحة وبلاغة».  ثم إن الكلام هناك منصبٌّ على الجهل بالنظريَّة، لا على الجهل بنظام الاستعمال الصحيح. ذلك لأن اللغة استعمال، لا قواعد، وما كان العرب يعرفون القواعد قبل تقعيدها، وإنما استُنبطت من استعمالاتهم، بيد أنهم كانوا عُرَباء فُصَحاء، يتنفّسون اللغة سليقةً وطبعًا، كالعاميَّة اليوم على ألسنتنا.  وقواعد العاميّة لو استُقرئتْ هي أعقد من الفصحى، وأشدّ التواء، وأكثر شتاتًا وتنوُّعًا.

   لنقُل، إذن، بتطوير مناهج تعليم اللغة، لا بالتخفُّف من أعبائها؛ فهذا الخيار الأخير هو هروب إلى الأسهل- بل قل: إلى الأسفل- وهو باب القول بالتنازل عن آخِر ما يمكن أن يتنازل عنه العربي، وهو لسانه، الحامل هويَّته، ورابطه بتراثه. وتلك دعوات قديمة، بعضها مريب، وبعضها صادق، من مثل دعوة (ابن مضاء الأندلسي)، المتعلّقة بالعامل النحوي تحديدًا، لكنها بقيتْ في إطار الجدل الفكري، أو الأيديولوجي؛ لأنها لم تقدِّم البديل العمليّ والعلميّ، المراعي طبائع اللغات وعلائقها بمعطيات الإنسان والحضارة، في الحاضر والماضي.

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حُجَج النُّحاة - أ. د. عبد الله بن أحمد الفَـيْـفي طباعة إرسال إلى صديق
تصنيفات: بحوث نحوية
تقييم المستخدمين: / 7
سيئجيد 
الكاتب صوت العربية   
السبت, 27 يوليو 2013 14:25

 كان النحوي العربي لا يهتمُّ بصِحَّة الرواية، وإنما يهتمّ بصِحَّة الاحتجاج بعربيَّة مَن سُمِع منه النصّ، وإنْ كان منتحِلًا، أو ناحِلًا، أو ربما مجنونًا.  لأنها أمور لا تطعن في سلامة اللغة، من حيث هي.  إن شاهد النحويّ منظور فيه إلى (حُجِّيَّة القائل- أو الناقل- النحويَّة)، لا إلى (صحَّة نسبته الشاهد إلى الشاعر المعيَّن).  ومن ثَمَّ فإنه لا يَصِحُّ أن يُحتجَّ باستشهادات سيبويه، مثلًا، على صحَّة نسبة الأبيات التي يستشهد بها سيبويه إلى الشعراء المنسوبة إليهم لديه، من جاهليِّين أو إسلاميِّين.  لأنه لا يَعنيه أن يكون القائل الشنفرَى، على سبيل المثال، أو الأعشى، أو النابغة، أو امرأ القيس، أو أعرابيًّا كاذبًا، أو حتى مجنونًا؛ بما أن مدار اهتمامه منصبٌّ على سلامة نِسْبَة الشاهد إلى عربيٍّ حُجَّةٍ في عربيَّته، لا على سلامة نِسْبَة الشاهد إلى قائله الحقيقي، أو على أخذ الشاهد عن الراوي الحُجَّة في روايته، بالضرورة. 

ولمَّا كان النحوي إنما يتحرَّى الحُجِّيَّة النحويَّة في الناطق بالشاهد، ولمَّا كان لا يلتفت إلى ما جاء عن غير حُجَّة نحويًّا- وَفق مقاييس احتجاجه الزمانيَّة والمكانيَّة- ولمَّا كانت بضاعة النحوي المطلوبة قد اشتهرت بين الرواة، وكان في هؤلاء الرواة الكَذَبَةُ والمتكسِّبون بالرواية، كان من المحتمل- والحالة تلك- وقوع أمرين:

1- إهمال عربيَّةٍ وافرةٍ، لا مطعن فيها، سوى عدم انطباق شروط النُّحاة عليها.

2- مع حِرص النُّحاة، لم يكن ما استشهدوا به ليَخْلو من الفساد اللغوي؛ لأن الراوي المتكسِّب، المتاجِر بالرواية، مثلما كان مستعِدًّا للكذب في الرواية، ربما كان مستعِدًّا أيضًا لتحريف الكَلِم عن مواضعه، من أجل أن يُدهِش الباحثَ عن الغرائب والنوادر، من جهة، أو لكي لا يروي من اللغة إلّا ما وافق قواعد النُّحاة، من جهة أخرى؛ حاجبًا ما عداه، وإنْ كان يعرفه مستعمَلًا عن عربٍ أقحاح.   

وبذا جرى تنميط العربيَّة وَفق قواعد ذهنيَّة؛ ما خالفها نُفيتْ صحَّته من العربيَّة، وما وافقها رُسِّخ فيها وخُلِّد ذِكره.  ولئن كان ذلك المنهاج قد أَدَّى إلى استقامة عِلْم النحو، وضَبْط أنساقه، فإنه على المستوى اللغوي العامّ قد أسهم جوهريًّا في أن يُهْمَل من العربيَّة أكثر ممَّا يُحفَظ.  

ولقد بدت مثل تلك المخالفات لقواعد النحو في القرآن الكريم، قبل غيره، من قبيل تلك الآية المشهورة: ﴿قَالُوا: إِنَّ هَذَانِ لَسَاحِرَانِ يُرِيدَانِ أَن يُخْرِجَاكُم مِّنْ أَرْضِكُم بِسِحْرِهِمَا وَيَذْهَبَا بِطَرِيقَتِكُمُ الْمُثْلَى.﴾ [طه: 63].  وفي قراءة: ﴿إِنْ هَذَانِ لَسَاحِرَانِ﴾.  وإنْ كان المعنى بهذه الصياغة الأخيرة لا يبدو متَّسقًا، إلَّا لو جاءت الصياغة: «إِنْ هَذَانِ إلَّا سَاحِرَانِ»، كما في آية [المائدة: 110] وغيرها: ﴿فَقَالَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْهُمْ: إِنْ هَـٰذَا إِلَّا سِحْرٌ مُّبِينٌ﴾. 

ومن تلك المخالفات عن قواعد النحو أيضًا الآية الأخرى: ﴿إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ والَّذِينَ هَادُواْ (والصَّابئُونَ) والنَّصَارَى، مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللّهِ واليَوْمِ الآخِرِ وعَمِلَ صَالِحًا، فَلا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ ولا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ.﴾ [المائدة: 69].  في حين تَرِد الصياغة في الآية الأخرى: ﴿إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ والَّذِينَ هَادُواْ والنَّصَارَى (والصَّابِئِينَ)، مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ واليَوْمِ الآخِرِ وعَمِلَ صَالِحًا، فَلَهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ ولا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ ولا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ.﴾ [البقرة: 62](1). أو الآية: ﴿لـٰكِنِ الرَّاسِخُونَ فِي العِلْمِ مِنْهُمْ والمُؤْمِنُونَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ ومَا أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ، (والمُقِيمِينَ) الصَّلَاةَ،  والمُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ، والمُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّـهِ واليَوْمِ الآخِرِ؛ أُولَـٰئِكَ سَنُؤْتِيهِمْ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا.﴾ [النساء: ١٦٢]. التي أَوْجَه تخريجاتها أن «المقيمين الصلاة» المقصود بهم الملائكة، أي الذين يؤمنون بالله وملائكته وكتبه ورسله؛ فيكون تخريج الآية الإعرابي: «لـٰكِنِ (الرَّاسِخُونَ فِي الْعِلْمِ مِنْهُمْ)، (والمُؤْمِنُونَ [الذين] يُؤْمِنُونَ بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ ومَا أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ وبالمُقِيمِينَ الصَّلَاةَ)، و(المُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ)، و(المُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّـهِ وَاليَوْمِ الْآخِرِ): أُولَـٰئِكَ سَنُؤْتِيْهِمْ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا.» (انظر: تفسير الطبري).  ولكَم داخَ النُّحاة ودَوَّخونا لتخريج الإعراب في تلك الآيات، طوعًا أو كرهًا(2).  ولو أنهم سلَّموا أن قواعدهم لم تكن متَّبعة كلَّ الاتِّباع قبل التقعيد، لأراحوا واستراحوا.  وكما يُقال في لغة القانون: «لا عقاب إلّا بقانون أو بنظام»، يقال هنا: «لا تَخْطِيْءَ إلَّا بقاعدة».  أمَّا ما جاء قبل وضع القواعد للُّغة، فلا يخضع لقواعد إنما وُضعت بعد الاستعمال اللغوي، ولا تُعَدُّ خروجاتُه أخطاء لغويَّة أو نحويَّة، بحالٍ من الأحوال.  هذا على الفرض، جَدَلًا، أن ثَمَّة خروجًا على تلك القواعد؛ وقد أوضحنا وجاهة الاستعمال، وأنْ لا خروج هنالك عن أساليب العرب.  على أن لقائلٍ أن يقول أيضًا: إن أمثال تلك الاستعمالات جاءت وَفق أعراف لغويَّة كانت متَّبعة، وإنْ لم تُدَوَّن أو يُعْتَدّ بها لندرتها، فجُعلتْ ممَّا سمَّاه علماؤنا: «الشاذّ» الخارج عن القاعدة، ولا يُقاس عليه.  ولقد وُجِدَت أمثال هذه الخروجات النحويَّة في شِعر العرب ونثرهم معًا، ممَّا لا حصر له. 

وقد سُقنا في مقال سابق نَصَّ تلك الوثيقة عن (ابن فضل الله العمري)، وفيها العهد الذي كتبه رسول الله إلى تميم الداري:

«...هذا ما أنطَى محمَّد رسول الله، لتميم الداريّ، وإخوته... شَهِدَ عتيق بن أبو قحافة، وعمر بن الخطاب، وعثمان بن عفان، وكتب عليّ بن بو طالب وشَهِدَ.»

وهي دالَّة دلالة مهمَّة على ملامح لغويَّة تاريخيَّة كانت قبل التقعيد اللغوي والنحوي.(3)

كما أنها دالَّة كذلك على مسألة تاريخيَّة أخرى بالغة الأهميَّة في جدليَّات المسلمين السياسيَّة السرمديَّة، بعد «التعقيد» السياسي والمذهبي الذي أعقب خصومة المسلمين حول الحاكم: أ يجب أن يكون من الأسرة النبويَّة، أم لا بأس أن يكون من غيرها، في «ديمقراطيَّة إسلاميَّة» مبكرة؟ وذلك من خلال ترتيب شهود وثيقة الرسول على هذا «النحو»: (أبي بكر، فعمر، فعثمان، فعليّ). إذ يغلب على التصوُّر أنه ما كان رسولُ الله ليُرتِّب شهوده هذا الترتيب سهوًا، أو اعتباطًا، لولا ما يبدو من أن مراتبهم «البروتوكوليَّة» قد كانت بهذا التسلسل سُنَّةً غالبةً متَّـبَعَةً منذ العهد النبوي، وفي معاملات الرسول نفسه.

وعودًا إلى مسألة الفصحى والعاميّة التي تطرقنا إليها في مقالات سالفة، فلقد كان ينبغي على المتعلِّم في العصر الحديث- إنْ كان شاعرًا- أن يطمح إلى الارتقاء بلغته الأدبيَّة لتجاوز المستوى المتدنِّي الذي ارتبط بالأُمِّيَّة والجهالة والعُزلة والاختلاط اللغوي، أو حتى بعربيّة ما قبل التقعيد.  أمّا الإبداع والجماليّة من حيث هما، فليس ثمَّة شِعر، يستحق هذا الاسم، فاقدًا للإبداع أو الجمال، في أيِّ لغة كانت، عربيَّة وغير عربيَّة.

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(1) ولهذا الاستعمال وجاهته، على كل حال، وَفق القواعد النحويًّة المقرَّرة؛ إذ لمَّا قرَّر أن الذين آمنوا والذين هادوا مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ وعَمِلَ صَالِحًا لا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ ولا هُمْ يَحْزَنُون، استأنف في أثناء ذلك الإشارة إلى النصارى والصابئين، وكأن تلك جملة اعتراضيَّة.  وهو أسلوبٌ عربيٌّ مألوفٌ، لا يخضع فيه المستأنَف للمقتضى الإعرابيّ حسبما قبله، وفي ذلك فَرْزٌ له وتمييز، كما نفعل اليوم عندما نستعمل من علامات الترقيم (الشَّرْطَة الاعتراضيَّة) لتِبيان الجملة الاعتراضيَّة في أثناء الكلام.  ولعلّ مسوِّغ هذا الاستئناف أسلوبيًّا أن الخطاب المباشر كان قبل الآية وبعد الآية موجَّهًا إلى السامعين على نحو فوريّ من يهود المدينة، فالآيات هي: "قُلْ يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ، لَسْتُمْ عَلَىٰ شَيْءٍ حَتَّىٰ تُقِيمُوا التَّوْرَاةَ وَالْإِنجِيلَ ومَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكُم مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ، ولَيَزِيدَنَّ كَثِيرًا مِّنْهُم مَّا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِن رَّبِّكَ طُغْيَانًا وَكُفْرًا؛ فَلَا تَأْسَ عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْكَافِرِينَ.  إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَالَّذِينَ هَادُوا- وَالصَّابِئُونَ وَالنَّصَارَىٰ- مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّـهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا فَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ ولَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ.  لَقَدْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ وأَرْسَلْنَا إِلَيْهِمْ رُسُلًا؛ كُلَّمَا جَاءَهُمْ رَسُولٌ بِمَا لَا تَهْوَىٰ أَنفُسُهُمْ فَرِيقًا كَذَّبُوا وَفَرِيقًا يَقْتُلُونَ﴾. (سورة المائدة: 68- 70).  ولئن كانت الآية الأخرى من سورة البقرة- ومثلها في سورة الحج-  تشتركان في تلك الحيثيّة المسوِّغة أسلوبيًّا للاستئناف، فإن الاستئناف ليس أمرًا لازمًا في كلّ حال، بل هو خيار تعبيريّ، للمُخاطِب أن يستعمله في دَرْج الكلام، (ولاسيما في جملة غير ملاصقة للعامل الإعرابي)، أو أن يَدَعَه. 

(2) راجع آراء النحاة حول الآية «إن هذان لساحران»: (ابن منظور، لسان العرب، (أنن)).

(3) انظر مقالنا تحت عنوان «استنبَطَ العُرْبُ في الموامي!»، صحيفة «الراي»، الخميس 11 يوليو 2013، ص45، على الرابط:  http://www.alraimedia.com/Article.aspx?id=450079&;date=11072013ـ

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[الكاتب: أ.د/عبدالله بن أحمد الفيفي، عنوان الموضوع: «حُجَج النُّحاة!»، المصدر: صحيفة «الرأي» الكويتية، العدد 12440، الثلاثاء 23 يوليو 2013، ص24].

 

 
كلمات خالدة! - أ.د/عبدالله بن أحمد الفَـيْـفي طباعة إرسال إلى صديق
تصنيفات: بحوث لغوية
تقييم المستخدمين: / 7
سيئجيد 
الكاتب صوت العربية   
الجمعة, 24 مايو 2013 09:19

 ـــ1 ـــ

قبل أسابيع نشرتُ مقالًا عن اللغة العربية بوصفها أقدم لغة حيّة في العالم اليوم(1). ومع أن ذلك ما يقرِّره علماء اللغة منذ حين، فقد نُشِر مؤخًّرًا، في صحيفة «الواشنطن بوست»، تقرير عن دراسةٍ لغويةٍ تدلّ على ذلك، مع أنها تُغفل المقارنة باللغة العربيَّة، بل بلغات منطقة الشرق الوسط وأفريقيا جميعًا، وكأنها ليست من العالم اللغوي الأهم، وإنْ كانت مهد ذلك العالم!

جاء التقرير حول دراسة عن 23 كلمة تمثّل، كما تقول الدراسة، أقدم المفردات التي ما زالت مستعملة في العالم، وتُقارن بين بعض العائلات اللغويّة في نُطقها تلك المفردات. ويقول ملخّص الدراسة- التي أجراها فريق بحث بقيادة (مارك باجِل Mark Pagel)، من (جامعة ريدينغ The University of Reading) في إنجلترا- ما فحوى ترجمته:

«إن البحث عن أعمق العلاقات على الإطلاق بين لغات العالم ما انفكّ متعثِّرًا لأن معظم الكلمات قد تطوَّرت بسرعة شديدة عن أصولها العائدة إلى ما قبل 5000 إلى 9000 سنة. وبالرغم من ذلك، فإن هناك قدرًا من النماذج اللغوية تشير إلى أن ثمة بعض الكلمات الخالدة التي يمكن أن يُستدلّ بها على علاقات لغوية عميقة أبعد من ذلك الأمد الزمني. ونحن هنا نستخدم نموذجًا إحصائيًّا، يأخذ بالحسبان نسق الكلمات المستعملة في لغة الحياة اليومية العامَّة، بهدف التنبُّؤ عن وجود كَمٍّ من مثل تلك الكلمات الخالدة، مشتركٍ بين العائلات اللغوية السبع (الأوراسية/ الأوربية الآسيوية)، يُفترض أنه يُشكِّل الفصيلة اللغوية التي تطوّرت من سَلَفٍ لغويٍّ مشتركٍ منذ حوالَى 15000 سنة. إننا نستمدّ شجرةَ نشوءٍ وتطوُّرٍ مؤرّخة من هذه الفصيلة المقترحة عبرَ زمن يوغل إلى 14450 سنة، ما يعني أن بعض الكلمات المستخدمة بشكلٍ متكرّرٍ جرى الاحتفاظ به في صِيَغٍ مستمرةٍ منذ نهاية العصر الجليدي الأخير. (...). ونتائجنا تُشير إلى دِقّةٍ ملحوظةٍ في انتقال بعض الكلمات، ومن ثم تُعطي التبرير النظري للبحث عن ملامح اللغة التي يمكن أن تكون قد حافظت على تلك الكلمات خلال تاريخ طويل وجغرافيا واسعة.» . 

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