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الرئيسية | النادي اللغوي | بحوث نحوية | الألف اللينة
 

صفحة شبكة صوت العربية في فيسبوكtwitterقناة شبكة صوت العربية في يوتيوبشبكة صوت العربية في موقع فليكر

الألف اللينة طباعة إرسال إلى صديق
تصنيفات: بحوث نحوية
تقييم المستخدمين: / 151
سيئجيد 
الكاتب صفية عبد القادر السوداني   
الثلاثاء, 06 سبتمبر 2011 14:59

هذه مشاركة من الكاتبة في تقديم تلخيص مفيد من أحد الكتب التعليمية، وهو يتناول إحدى مسائل اللغة المهمّة :
 
الباب الرابع : الألف اللينة

من كتاب ( المرجع في الكتابة العربية ) / تأليف : رياض جنزرلي , ومحمد حامد سليمان / إصدار : جامعة أم القرى / معهد اللغة العربية لغير الناطقين بها / وحدة البحوث والمناهج .

ويتبع الكتاب طريقة عرض الموضوعات من خلال الأمثلة , ثم شرحها وتوضيحها ، ليستخرج قواعد موضوعها , ويعقب ذلك أمثلة وتمارين تطبيقية . وسأكتفي بعرض الأمثلة والشرح والقاعدة , وأحيل القارئ إلى صفحات الموضوع في الكتاب للمزيد من الفائدة .

                                              والله أسأل التوفيق والسداد

                                             صفية عبد القادر السوداني

 

الفصل الأول :                      من صفحة 297 ـ 324

1 ـ الألف اللينة تعريفها وأنواعها .

2 ـ الألف اللينة في الأسماء المبنية .

3 ـ الأسماء المعربة المنتهية بألف لينة .

4 ـ العلم الأعجمي المنتهي بألف لينة .

الفصل الثاني :                    من صفحة 325 ـ 349   

1 ـ الألف اللينة في الأفعال .

2 ـ الألف اللينة في الحروف .

                                                      الباب الرابـع

                                                      الفصـل الأول                                                    

الموضوع الأول : الألف اللينة تعريفها وأنواعها

                                                       تلوث البيئة

يسعى علماء البيئة في أوربا وآسيا وأفريقيا , إلى التقليل من خطر تلّوث الأرض من الأخطار الناتجة عن مخلفات المصانع , ونفايات الآلات , حيث يتشبع الهواء ببخار الماء فيتساقط مطراً يقتل الأسماك في أنهارها , والنباتات في تربتها , والحيوانات في مواطنها , ويؤثر في الإنسان فيما يلمسه ويشمه ويأكله , فيصاب جهازه الهضمي والعصبي والعظمي والتنفسي .

فعلام ندمر أنفسنا ؟ وإلام نُشوِّه حياتنا ؟ ونقضي على مصادر رزقنا ؟ .

فلنحافظ على سلامة بيئتنا لنحيا أصحاء أقوياء , لا مرضى ضعفاء .

الشرح :

* انظر إلى الكلمات الآتية : ( علماء , أخطار , مصانع , أسماك , مصادر ) ، تجدها : أسماء في وسطها ألف لينة كتبت ممدودة , مفتوحاً ما قبلها .

* ولا يشترط أن تكون الألف الممدودة في الوسط , فلو نظرت إلى الكلمات : ( أوربا , وآسيا , وأفريقيا ) لوجدت ألفاً ممدودة مفتوحاً ما قبلها , ولكنها جاءت في آخر الكلمة .

* وعند النظر إلى كلمة ( مرضى ) نجدها قد انتهت بألف لينة كتبت مقصورة , ومن هنا ندرك أن الألف التي في آخر الكلمة قد تكون مقصورة أو ممدودة , بعكس الألف في وسط الكلمة التي لا بد أن تكون ممدودة .

* ولو تأملت الأفعال : ( يتساقط ، يصاب , نحافظ ) نجد ألفها اللينة وسطاً مفتوحاً ما قبلها فتكتب دائماً ألفاً ممدودة . و لا تأتي أبداً الألف اللينة في وسط الكلمة ألفا مقصورة .

* أما الفعلان ( نحيا , يسعى ) تجد ألفها اللينة مرة ألفاً ممدودة , وأخرى ألفاً مقصورة , وذلك إذا كانت الألف اللينة في آخر الفعل .

* وإذا عدت إلى الحرفين ( لا ) و ( إلى ) أدركت أن : الألف اللينة في آخر الحرف قد تكتب ممدودة أو مقصورة .

* فإن اتصل هذا الحرف ـ ( إلى ) و ( على ) ـ بما الاستفهامية كتبت ألفه ألفاً ممدودة مثل ( علام ؟ ) و ( إلام ؟ ) الاستفهاميتين , إذ أصلهما ( على ) و ( إلى ) .

القاعدة :

1 ـ الألف اللينة هي : ألف ساكنة مفتوح ما قبلها ، وتأتي في وسط الكلمة آخرها , ولا تأتي في أول الكلمة .

2 ـ الألف اللينة نوعان :

أ ـ ألف ممدودة تأتي دائماً في وسط الأسماء والأفعال .

ب ـ ألف مقصورة أو ممدودة تأتي أواخر الأسماء والأفعال والحروف .

3 ـ إذا اتصل الحرف المنتهي بألف مقصورة بما الاستفهامية كتبت الألف المقصورة فيه ألفاً ممدودة .

ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ

الموضوع الثاني : الألف اللينة في الأسماء المبنية

الأمثلة :

1 ـ أنا أسكن مع أخي .

2 ـ مهما حاولت فهذا قدرك .

3 ـ إذا أعادا المحاولة فهما فائزان .

4 ـ ماذا تقول حيثما تذهب ؟

5 ـ كيفما تعملا فأنتما تربحان .

6 ـ ( قال ربي أنى يكون لي غلام وقد بلغني الكبر ) .

7 ـ متى تذهب لدى الشيخ تجد ما تريد .

8 ـ أولى حجاج الرحمن الألى شكروا ربهم . ( 1 )

الشرح :

  • إذا نظرت إلى الكلمات التي تحتها خط مثل : ( أنا , هنا ، مهما , هذا , إذا , هما ، ماذا , حيثما , كيفما ، أنتما , ما ) لوجدتها أسماء مبنية , كتبت ألفها المتطرفة ممدودة , وهذا الأصل في كتابة الأسماء المبنية المختومة بألف لينة .
  • وإذا نظرت في الأمثلة من السادس إلى الثامن لوجدت الكلمات : ( أنى , ومتى , ولدى , وأولى , وأُلى ) ولاحظت أن ألفها اللينة كتبت ألفاً مقصورة على خلاف الكلمات المبنية , ولذلك تنفرد هذه الكلمات الخمس من جميع الأسماء المبنية بكتابة ألفها اللينة ألفاً مقصورة

القاعدة :

1 ـ إذا كان الاسم مبنياً تكون الألف اللينة التي في آخره ممدودة .

2 ـ تشذ هذه الأسماء المبنية في كتابة ألفها اللينة مقصورة وهي : أنى , متى , أولى ( اسم إشارة ) ، الألى ( اسم موصول ) .

ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ

1 / يلاحظ أن ( أولى ) وهي اسم إشارة ( بمعنى هؤلاء ) كتبت الواو فيها زائدة , وهي تكتب ولا تنطق , وذلك للتفريق بينها وبين ( الألى ) وهي اسم موصول بمعنى ( الذين ) .



الموضوع الثالث : الأسماء المعربة المنتهية بألف لينة

                                        صدى التاريخ

قال يحيي لأخته سلوى : إن صدى التاريخ يدوِّي في كل بقعة من أرض العرب ؛ في الفلا , وعلى ربا الجبال ، وعلى ثرى المدن ، في بلاد الرافدين بالعراق , وعلى ضفاف النيل في مصر والسودان , وبردى في الشام ، وشواطئ الخليج العربي في الجزيرة , والمحيط الأطلسي في المغرب . إنه الإشعاع الحضاري الذي نبع من أم القرى , وشع على العالم أجمع , فحقق للإنسان العلا  وذرا المجد , وصرع العمى وقضى على الأذى .

إن سنا الحضارة الإسلامية الكبرى هدىً تطيب له النفوس , وذكرى متجددة تصل الماضي بدنيا الحاضر , فتحيله بشرى ومأوى وأمناً .

الشرح :

إذا نظرت إلى الكلمات : ( الفلا , ربا , ذرا , سنا ) وجدتها كلمات ثلاثية انتهت بألف لينة ممدودة , وإذا رجعت إلى أصل هذه الألف الممدودة وجدتها ( واواً ) ؛ فجمع ( فلا ) جمعاً سالماً ( فلوات ) , ومن هنا أدركنا أن هذه الألف الممدودة أصلها واو , ومفرد كلمة ( ربا ) ربوة , و( ذرا ) ذروة . ومن هنا حكمنا بأن هذه الألف اللينة أصلها واو .

وإذا رجعنا إلى مضارع كل من الأفعال الماضية ( علا ) و ( سنا ) وجدناه : ( يعلو ) و ( يسنو ) , ومن ذلك تعرف أن الألف الممدودة المتطرفة أصلها واو .

ولو تأملت الكلمات : ( صدى , ثرى , عمى , أذى , هدى ) وجدتها أيضاً كلمات ثلاثية لكنها انتهت بألف مقصورة فما السر في ذلك ؟

ارجع إلى أصل هذه الألف تجدها ( ياء ) ؛ ويمكن معرفة ذلك بردِّ المفرد إلى المثنى , أو جمع المؤنث السالم , أو اشتقاق صفة مؤنثة , أو برد الجمع إلى المفرد ؛ فمثنى ( صدى : صديان ) وجمع ( أذى : أذِيَّات ) , والصفة المؤنثة من ( عمى : عمياء ) , والمفرد من ( قرى : قرية ) .

وإذا انتقلنا إلى الكلمات الرباعية فصاعداً مثل ( سلوى , كبرى ، ذكرى , بشرى , مأوى ) وجدناها كلمات رباعية منتهية بألف مقصورة ليس قبلها ياء , فإن كان قبلها ياء مثل ( عليا ) و ( دنيا ) : تكون ألفها ممدودة ؛ وذلك لكراهة اجتماع الياء مع الألف المقصورة .

وبالتأمل في العلم ( يحيى ) نجد أن ألفه اللينة كتبت مقصورة , رغم أن قبلها ياء , وهذه الكلمة الوحيدة الشاذة في الأسماء الرباعية .

القاعدة :

1 ـ إذا كان الاسم ثلاثياً معرباً , وأصل ألفه اللينة المتطرفة واو : تكتب ألفه ممدودة . وإذا كان أصل الألف ياء : تكتب ألفه مقصورة .

2 ـ إذا كان الاسم رباعياً فصاعداً , وينتهي بألف لينة ليس قبلها ياء : تكون ألفه مقصورة . وإن كان قبلها ياء : تكون ألفه ممدودة , ويشذ عن هذه القاعدة اسم العلم ( يحيى ) .

3 ـ يعرف أصل الألف في الاسم الثلاثي المعرب برده إلى : المثنى أو الجمع المؤنث السالم , أو الصفة , أو المصدر , أو الفعل ( المضارع أو الماضي ) .

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الموضوع الرابع : العلم الأعجمي والمنتهي بألف لينة

الأمثلة :

1 ـ من الدول الإسلامية : تركيا في آسيا , وليبيا في أفريقيا .

2 ـ من الدول الأوربية : فرنسا وأسبانيا وألمانيا والنمسا ورومانيا .

3 ـ اشتد النزاع بين أمريكا وروسيا .

4 ـ نزلت التوراة على موسى , والإنجيل على عيسى عليهما السلام .

5 ـ هُزِم كسرى أمام الجيش الإسلامي بقيادة سعد بن أبي وقاص .

6 ـ بخارى مدينة إسلامية , وإليها يُنسب الإمام البخاري .

الشرح :

* بالنظر إلى الأسماء الأعجمية : ( تركيا وآسيا وأفريقيا وفرنسا وأسبانيا والنمسا ورومانيا وأمريكا وروسيا ) نجد أنها ختمت بألف لينة كتبت ألفاً ممدودة , وذلك في كل اسم أعجمي .

* أعد النظر مرة أخرى إلى الأعلام التي وردت في الأمثلة الثلاثة الأخيرة وهي : ( موسى وعيسى وكسرى وبخارى ) تلاحظ أن ألفها اللينة المتطرفة كتبت مقصورة ؛ لأن العرب قاموا بتعريبها وهي الأسماء الأعجمية الوحيدة التي تكتب ألفها اللينة ألفاً مقصورة .

القاعدة :

1 ـ إذا كان الاسم أعجمياً : تكون ألفه المتطرفة ممدودة .

2 ـ تشذ عن هذه القاعدة أربعة أسماء فقط هي : موسى وعيسى وكسرى وبخارى .

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                                                   تم بحمد الله الفصل الأول , من الباب الرابع

                                          البـاب الرابع                                                   

                                              الفصل الثاني

الموضوع الأول : الألف اللينة في الأفعال

الأمثلة :

1 ـ هجا ( حسان بن ثابت ) المشركين .

2 ـ وعى الطالب الدرس .

3 ـ صحا جميع الناس من رقادهم .

4 ـ هدى الله بعض الناس إلى الخير .

5 ـ ألقى الطالب كلمة رحب فيها بالوزير .

6 ـ تبارى اللاعبون على ملعب الجامعة .

7 ـ استوى الرجل في مجلسه .

8 ـ احلولى الرمان .

9 ـ حيا الخطيب المصلين .

10 ـ استحيا ( فرعون ) البنات , وقتل الأولاد .

11 ـ هو يخشى الموت على السرير فكيف يسير إليه سيراً ؟

12 ـ أسعى للمعالي ويسعى للمعاش .

13 ـ ينهى الإسلام عن الاغتياب .

14 ـ كنا نحيا حياة الزاهدين .

15 ـ الحليم لا يعيا بضيق الأحمق .

الشرح :

  • إذا تتبعت الأفعال : ( هجا ، صحا , وعي , هدى ) في الأمثلة الأربعة الأولى وجدتها أفعالاً ثلاثية منتهية بألف لينة مرسومة ألفاً ممدودة في الفعلين : ( هجا , وصحا ) لأنها منقلبة عن واو فأصلها في المصدرين : ( الهجو , والصحو ) . أما في الفعلين : ( وعى , وهدى ) فالألف منقلبة عن ياء ، لأن مصدرها ( الوعي , والهدى ) ولذلك رسمت ألفاً مقصورة .
  • وإذا تتبعت الأفعال : ( ألقى , تبارى , استوى , احلولى ) وجدتها أفعالاً ماضية حروفها زائدة عن ثلاثة , ووجدت آخرها ألفاً مقصورة لأن الألف ليست مسبوقة بياء .
  • أما الفعلان : ( حيّا , واستحيا ) فقد رسم آخرهما ألفاً ممدودة لأن الألف فيهما مسبوقة بياء .
  • أما إذا تتبعت الأفعال : ( يخشى , يسعى , ينهى , نحيا , يعيا ) وجدتها أفعالاً مضارعة , ووجدت الألف المتطرفة في ( يخشى , ويسعى , وينهى ) رسمت ألفاً مقصورة . ولكنها في ( نحيا , وسعياً ) رسمت ألفاً ممدودة لأن الفعلين مختومان بياء قبل الألف .

القاعدة :

1 ـ يرسم آخر الماضي الثلاثي ألفاً ممدودة إن كان أصل ألفه واواً , ويرسم ألفاً مقصورة إن كان أصل ألفه ياء .

2 ـ يرسم آخر الماضي الزائد عن ثلاثة أحرف ألفاً مقصورة , إلا إذا جاءت ألفه مسبوقة بياء فيرسم ألفاً ممدودة .

3 ـ ترسم ألف المضارع الأخيرة ألفاً مقصورة دائماً إلا إذا كانت مسبوقة بياء فترسم ألفاً ممدودة .

4 ـ يتضح أصل الألفين بالرجوع إلى :

            أ / المضارع مثل : بدا يبدو , فأصل الألف واو . أو : رمى يرمي , فأصل الألف ياء .

           ب / أو المصدر مثل : محا محواً . يسعى سعياً , فأصل الألف في ( محا ) واو . وأصلها في (سعى )  ياء .

           ج / أو الماضي إذا أُسند إلى ضمير رفع متحرك مثل : رنا رنوت , فأصل الألف واو . ومثل : بنى بنيت ,

                  فأصل الألف ياء .

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الموضوع الثاني : الألف اللينة في الحروف

الأمثلة :

1 ـ ما حضر إلا طالب .

2 ـ يا محمد لا تترك عملك .

3 ـ لمّا يذاكر الطالب دروسه ، فهلا نصحته .

4 ـ ألا بذكر الله تطمئن القلوب .

5 ـ أيا ( سعيد ) ها هو ( علي ) .

6 ـ جئت إلى المعهد حتى أتعلم .

7 ـ بلى حضرت على شركة الطيران السعودية .

8 ـ إلام الخلف بينكم إلاما ؟         وهذه الضجة الكبرى علاما ؟

9 ـ حتام أنت تمزح ؟

الشرح :

  • بالنظر إلى الحروف التي تحتها خط وهي : ( ما , وإلا , ويا , ولا , ولما , وهلا , وألا , وها ) نجدها حروفاً انتهت بألف لينة , كتبت بألف ممدودة وهي الأصل في كتابة الحروف التي تنتهي بألف لينة .
  • وإذا نظرت إلى المثالين السادس والسابع وجدت حروفاً انتهت كلماتها بألف مقصورة , وقد شذت عن الفاعدة العامة لكتابة الحروف المنتهية بالألف اللينة , وهذه الحروف هي : ( إلى , حتى , على , بلى ) .
  • وإذا اتصلت هذه الحروف ( بما ) الاستفهامية تحولت الألف المقصورة إلى ألف ممدودة , مثلما جاء في المثالين الثامن والتاسع ( إلام ؟ وعلام ؟ وحتام ؟ ) حيث اتصلت ( إلى , وعلى , وحتى ) بما الاستفهامية فتغيرت الألف المقصورة إلى ألف ممدودة, وحذفت ألف ( ما ) .

القاعدة :

1 ـ إذا تطرفت الألف اللينة فهي ممدودة أو مقصورة .

2 ـ إذا تطرفت الألف اللينة في حرف تكون ممدودة عادة , وتشذ أربعة حروف فقط هي : إلى , وعلى , بلى , وحتى

     فتكتب ألفها اللينة ألفاً مقصورة .

3 ـ إذا اتصلت ما الاستفهامية بـ : إلى , وعلى , وحتى تحولت الألف المقصورة إلى ألف ممدودة , وحذفت ألف ( ما )

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                                                                     تم بحمد الله وتوفيقه

 
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