alavert online in us bupropion generic brands keppra 100 mg side effects generic pills for himcocid ventolin drug class sinemet without prescription buy duetact new zealand online azithromycin diarrhea side effects brand viagra without script can you buy chloroquine looking viagra rezeptfrei bestellen gnstig depakote alternatives bipolar disorder cheap prometrium no prescription zolpidem tartrate 5mg overdose how to get coumadin in australia bactroban ointment price bentyl online bestellen donde comprar fruta acai to buy mirapex buy rimadyl for dogs online therapeutic dose of seroquel for anxiety medication sales statistics exelon drugstore zoloft prices at costco baclofen pump refills orlistat weight loss stories buy isotretioin online reviews zolpidem dosage for women zyprexa 5mg withdrawal what is the side effect of yasmin pills aciclovir online no prescription high blood pressure medication no prescription cheap crestor cheapest clozaril paypal cheap risperdal 4mg prescription drug marketing act alliance inc lansoprazole tablets side effects long term side effects of tamoxifen do you need rx proscar buy floxin astrailia buy generic tadacip online no prescription where can i order nizoral shampoo where to buy cheap generic roxithromycin cat allergy symptoms in toddlers buy metformin online uk to buy toradol in uk what is the generic name for crestor cheap erexor buy online how to take prednisone 5mg for poison ivy atarax buy no prescription pyridium 100 mg dosage where to get avodart abilify noprescrition needed uk online pharmacy aciclovir canada drug store inderal la 60 half life mexican pharmacies that ship to usaa how to take amoxicillin 500mg capsules what is alphagan drops used for cipro prices cvs comprar allopurinol online can you buy and proguanil over the counter cheapest chloroquine prices best price for revia low dose olanzapine weight gain buy kamagra gold tablets online grifulvin v generic what is the generic form of propecia retino ac gel side effects amoxil no prescription canadian pharmacy chloromycetin delivery zofran order arjuna online artane shopping centre contact ciprofloxacin side effects muscle pain sarafem 50mg tablets where can i get apcalis sx pills zithromax to buy in the uk without a prescription buy estrace online amazon generic reglan safe naprosyn overnight shipping cheap minimax discount calan endep 10 sublingual viagra pro canada generic buy effexor what percentage of u.s. drugs come from mexico generic tablets buy actos renagel for dogs buy buy tamoxifen online australia cialis 20mg effects apcalis sx 100 depakote looking for order florinef from canada without prescription coumadin diet education online viramune purchase staxyn 10mg canada what is valtrex for shingles singulair generic walmart price viramune order hydroxyzine anxiety review costo de cytotec en venezuela fast plavix deleviery best finax prices diclofenac stroke lawsuit remeron uk brand name where can i get some proscar name of female viagra pills in india canadian meds usa review what does the drug allegra do doxycycline treatment heartworms dogs retin-a acne before and after pictures minoxidil 10 vs 5 tamsulosin hydrochloride capsules reviews on floxin male fertility drugs motility what is the generic form of prednisone benicar mist canada suhagra usa cvs prices tamsulosin hcl for kidney stones in women canadian drugstores no prescription pharmacy mexico cafergot oral prednisone dose for children discount canadian pharmacy viagra soft can i get high off unisom proscar results forum nitrofurantoin in pregnancy side effects health canada procardia to buy ranitidine how long does it take for lamictal to work for seizures side effects of methotrexate purchasing forzest online uk buy cheap kamagra jelly allopurinol tablets ip 100 mg donde comprar silagra drug interaction prednisone alcohol cytoxan lowest price buy effects acticin online order promethazine codeine online canadian pharmacy online decadron pravachol for sale online buy betapace online in usa source naturals l-tryptophan reviews craigslist manchester nh buy lotrel generic online bactrim ds 800-160 tab a genuine erythromycin 100mg half price lukol elocon for sale philippines hctz triamterene side effects propecia dose women crestor commercial woman compazine ordering no prescription get cyklokapron toronto order grifulvin on line canada free morning after pill amsa fast orlistat como se toma suhugra online false cheap geriforte buy online buy anafranil cheap online canada pharmacy what does astelin nasal spray antihistamine florida avodart voltaren order canada side effects of fertility drugs clomid 10mg phenergan ok for pregnancy what is pyridium drugs famvir where can i buy it arava 20 mg shortage buy seroflo hong kong 50mcg discount does rogaine work without propecia who were the allies of the french in the french and indian war buy topamax tablets uk carbozyne sublingual dosage cardura limited india cost propecia boots cheap minomycin pills oral prednisone dosage buy topical erythromycin online zopiclone for sale discount levitra no rx viagra ireland prescription alphagan tablets for purchase what is ciprofloxacin 500 mg tablets prescribed for costco membership uk requirements lamisil spray precio mexico aceon without a script next day fedex pharmacy that sells zyprexa discount name brand cialis comprar betoptic portugal can i make noroxin buy adhd meds online where do i tetracycline in india buy augmentin tablets online cost of cytotec in kenya metformin for sale uk how many benadryl to take for hives deltasone shortage 2012 retin a micro price canada can you buy generic alphagan p viagra preise holland fluoxetine price australia order hydrochlorothiazide from australia without prescription diclofenac gel echeck vigrande 50 mg 4 tablet can you buy singulair cheap prescription required social anxiety disorder test nolvadex over the counter india where to minocin cheapest drug erection packs 2 discount rx direct sarasota can you buy tadapox in ireland where to buy provera drugs online generic advair diskus 100 15 periactin stores cod buy minipress from mexico online prevacid 5mg tablets dostinex canada buy methotrexate generico online buying lady era in manchester valsartan diovan where to buy omeprazole order levaquin on line mexico elocon ointment cost viagra alternatives over the counter australia prescription where to buy alligator meat in mississippi what is the symbol for lithium nizoral a-d anti-dandruff shampoo reviews hydrochlorothiazide brand order what is elavil 25 mg for where could i buy requip without prescription where to find lithium ore maplestory januvia 100 mg coupons bactroban cream prices provera online pharmacy uk triamterene side effects sun exposure retin a cream wo script over the counter elocon lanoxin dosage recommended cost of pravachol generic for cipro hc otic suspension side effects of lipitor glucophage brand or generic buy nizoral cream shampoo is viagra prescription drug in australia where can i get phenergan erexor from usa pharmacy prevacid medication children motilium 100 price india order ampicillin how to use lexapro baclofen tablets usp buy sinequan canada order lopid 120 mg vardenafil levitra tadalafil cialis new cfc-free primatene mist albendazole tablet 400 mg alphagan medication interactions ophthalmic med cab propranolol pharmacy that sells astelin what is promethazine hydrochloride bp generic colchicine prices billig doxycycline online kaufen prescription drugs india legal avalide cheap price aciclovir generico bula coumadin no prescription reviews generic bupron sr buy canada viagra jelly pills buy is mail order anafranil safe where can i buy testosterone pills voltaren tablets purchase on line best site get viagra lipitor discount no prescription shoppers drug mart canada day hours hamilton better than cozaar safe prednisolone no precription propranolol buy online india what are side effects of ramipril nexium otc arava aircraft for sale himcocid cost in canada low cost overnight viagra jelly healthcare alliance rxrelief cards claritin d 24 hour allergy & congestion relief extended release tablets how to apply tretinoin cream usp 0.025 nitrofurantoin dose india propecia discount online albenza dosage thyroxine overdose treatment buying nymphomax for dogs overnight pharmacy cialis cialis sublingual medication online propecia results frontal proventil generic 2013 drugs no prescription cialis super active buy online ventolin generic health canada ceftin weight loss medication for women with pcos what is better synthroid or levothyroxine ordering alesse medication discounts discount code for cleocin gel without click here buy tinidazole what does cialis feel like how to order gyne-lotrimin online differin gel active ingredients albendazole best price evista roche precio argentina where do i bupron in usa shoppers drug mart canada day hours toronto requip generic manufacturers escrow refills buy betapace astrailia albendazole on line for sale no script how to get cabgolin in australia side effects of quinine sulfate raloxifene gyno dose anti anxiety medication pregnancy category where to buy cephalexin online mexico suhagra on line in the india alli diet pills consumer reviews avapro medication dosage what plant is aspirin made out of buy viagra professional online no prescription how to take imitrex tablets differin generic cheap costs keflex 500 mg prices retin a micro gel pump colospa without prescription how to take orlistat mg argos pet insurance how long does it take promethazine dm to kick in buy over the counter trimox online generic flomax prices albenza in canada are mexico and the us allies cheap pravachol india coupons for acai berry diet buy keftab online usa viagra super active direct pharmacy clomiphene citrate success rates buy acticin tablets generic synthroid vs brand name buy minipress online pharmacy acticin cheap ampicillin per pill all rights reserved what is siberian ginseng root what drug category is rumalaya brafix without insurance can i get acai berry in nigeria what is zerit made of keppra xr vs generic cymbalta and alcohol cravings nexium oral uses where does ampicillin come from orlistat weight gain provera de 100 mg online lasix no prescription order elocon online without rx information on accutane medication imiquimod (aldara) maxalt mlt discount coupons toradol street price generic avodart review acheter pas cher prednisolone us pharmacies online that sell antivert legal drugs shop online uk cephalexin on line no script purchase yasmin in us cvs canadian passport lukol pills sweat how best to take glucophage quinine sulfate quantum yield levaquin store coupon in re viagra products liability litigation proscar for hair loss does it work pharmacy store fixtures ny pfizer viagra off patent indian forum buy accutane diltiazem dose conversion phenergan visa xeloda 500 mg tablets allegra for purchase without a prescription get free viagra uk buy aceon patch where to buy cipofloxacin 500mg tablets i pill urispas website how many doses in astelin accutane pills online in the uk alli diet pills shortage where to pilex cheapest drug antivert over the counter aceon fill prescription without health insurance what is artane medication for effexor xr 75mg used zoloft generic problems baby aspirin dose pregnancy can buy pravachol online rosuvastatin tablets ip 10 mg buy generic proscar with bonus buy cheap metformin pills does nexium work better than prevacid asacol discount canada pharmacy augmentin dose what does aspiring actor mean nolvadex australia buy viagra sublingual in canada safe buy celebrex canada buy paroxetine hong kong atacand 32 mg price acivir pills no prrescription albendazole treatment pinworms buy clomid from canadian pharmacy without perscription what types of reminyl are there list of tesco stores selling diltiazem generic hydrochlorothiazide hctz order metformin overnight tamsulosin capsules bp can you buy ventolin over the counter in america cost of zyvox medication danazol cost acai berry and heart medications what is arjuna;s dharma where to buy alli from capsules doxycycline generic or brand mevacor is a common medication used to treat tab.tenormin 25 mg cipro medication uses alcohol and percocet erowid retin-a micro before and after buy actos 1 drugs online canadian pharmacy eulexin uk buy ciplactin and dexona no prescription prozac online pharmacy generaic flagyl purchase amitriptyline 150 mg acheter acticin maximum dulcolax dose buy over the counter grifulvin v online viagra maximum dosage sodium diclofenac breastfeeding buy yasmin pills in the uk cheap cefixime lamisil prescription pill generic cialis with paypal what is aricept and how does it work cheap accutane 2 20mg buy prometrium canada there generic estrace buying lopressor for dogs what is depakote er prescribed for generic clomid at walmart seroquel pill canadian snovitra super power looking for generico de vermox cymbalta and amitriptyline combination torsemide from china how long does it take for benicar to start working desi tashan pavitra rishta 15th february 2013 episode tetracycline 20mg tab can you crush cipro tablets how to take zestoretic where to buy trileptal online canada revia pas cher italie acquistare lozol in italia side effects of prednisone skin rash best place buy midamor where to get geriforte pct buy nolvadex discount tramadol hydrochloride drug information adalat ep 100 balika vadhu desi tashan 18 feb 2013 cheap pharmacy tech programs best fertility pills for women with pcos how much does nizoral cream cost erythromycin for sale online imuran dose methotrexate alcohol v-gel tablets from buy onlinebestmeds com aspirin zero order kinetics inderal online coupon code what drug category is lasuna diclofenac potassium tablets dosage best price alli tablets novartis diovan hct coupons buy triamterene from canada are no prescription online pharmacies legal aciphex dosage for children coreg annual sales safe place order retino-a cream 0,05 zovirax cream no prescription cheap acticin uk generic buy cardizem online in usa generic risperdal india levaquin india which pure pomegranate juice is good how effective is the morning after pill during ovulation where do i buy aleve xbox live price increase xbox one prescriptions buy abilify online compazine not generic buy benicar generic norvasc side effects in men order generic zyloprim cephalexin antibiotics how to get liposafe in australia ultra low dose tinidazole order mestinon online canadian methotrexate injection viagra 3 day delivery can i get fincar flovent cost canada order valtrex online in usa nizagara mg order where to buy aldactone online how to use differin gel 3 buy capoten generic bystolic visa best pharmacy to order venlor buying ventolin in the uk is it legal to buy rx drugs from canada can amoxicillin treat chlamydia in women antibiotics augmentin and alcohol buy cardura tablets us best site to buy nizoral what does trileptal is it illegal to order generic renagel ranitidine tablets uk low coreg high blood pressure generic flovent hfa inhaler wellbutrin medication for adhd metoclopramide 40mg buy protonix from india buy phenergan online no prescription us where do i seroquel in canada grifulvin v spain over counter erexor medicine online non persciption prevacid betoptic cheap buy cheap seroquel overnight cymbalta duloxetine 30 mg canadian online pharmacy that accepts american express gift card cicloferon 400 tabletas hoodia slimming pills side effects trandate mexico lexapro paypal where to get viagra in bangladesh buy urispas hong kong prednisone 20 mg for 7 days buy nizoral shampoo online uk prescription common side effects of clozaril nizoral shampoo fl 80g 20mg g all types albenza pills eulexin discontinued casodex 150 mg 28 film tablet cialis comprar foro cephalexin capsules uk doxycycline dosage for chronic lyme disease american express canada travel online pharmacy aricept ordering aldactone generic buy paxil price costco american elocon effexor xr dosage augmentin dds side effects to buy elimite buy didronel bulk yellow vision viagra buy ginseng online usa lynoral price ordering cialis sublingual canadian pharmacy betapace prices usa what is avalide taken for nice beauty conditions during abortion misoprostol cytotec pills cardura where to purchase what is erythromycin for newborn best place to buy apcalis sx can i get remeron cymbalta online usa no prescription what is the difference between micardis and micardis hct how to order cordarone online what is amitriptyline hcl 25mg used for comprar abana original en madrid what is the dose for benadryl allergy deltacortril ent 5mg prednisone side effects nitrofurantoin for sale philippines side effects of diltiazem 2 cream is mail order stromectol safe brand viagra visa doxycycline genrx side effects combivent pharmacy online ordering cialis super active cheaper alternatives to cialis order zantac on line usa flagyl in dogs overdose bay online cialis 2.5 mg cialis online order canada vasodilan prix en pharmacie en france cheapest place to buy florinef cialis commercial mustang can i make glucophage acivir over the counter usa vente de cialis sublingual au quebec what diseases does tetracycline treat cheap wellbutrin sr india long term side effects taking cialis buy prescription drugs online no prescription needed what was viagra first developed for 24 media group ltd premarin cream lawsuit what does hyzaar pill look like buy synthroid patch estradiol blood test range levoxyl vs synthroid which is better how to get erythromycin on line sinequan online australia how to order acai berry pills buy brand epivir-hbv asacol uk buy cephalexin side effects depression can i get viagra at cvs online sale of plendil cheap doxycycline online uk tadalis sx cost in canada what cavity is the parietal peritoneum in safety of metronidazole in pregnancy aleve medicine wikipedia retin a cream 0.05 zolpidem 5mg side effects is mail order female cialis safe prednisone pack 10mg directions vasotec lawsuit settlements buy unisom with paypal lisinopril 100mg cheap can you buy acai berry at a health food store diclofenac gel generico italiano online purchase viagra best online drug stores canada when is celebrex going generic estrace cream cost of flovent hfa 110 mcg zyrtec allergy tablets side effects unisom without prescription canada buy bystolic 20 bentyl capsules allergy medicine better than zyrtec cheap diflucan no prescription original quibron-t online india zetia price voltaren pills used van you buy cozaar canadian pharmacy comfortis no prescription needed haldol 5mg tablets can you buy shuddha guggulu over the counter in germany is mail order cabgolin safe generic cialis south africa chloromycetin for sale philippines i pill rogaine 5 website motrin 800 high reviews on zovirax cold sore cream buy-viagra-in-dubai sildenafil pulmonary hypertension children acheter mircette pas cher nymphomax spain over counter zantac results forum viagra for sale london what does viagra make you feel like protonix lawsuit 2009 non prescription finast pharmacy alli weight-loss aid orlistat 60mg claritin for kids age clonidine dose for sleep in children with adhd buy liv mg vermox suppliers overseas mylan bupropion xl effexor xr dosage forms what is toprol xl 25 mg used for free premarin 1.25 dostinex medication women buy trial erection packs 3 discount cardizem 20 mg keflex refill pack cheap discount metformin without side effects of the drug ropinirole what are the side effects of doxazosin mesylate ginette-35 prices usa what does buspar do to you bactrim ds side effects sore throat propranolol usage purchasing neurontin online my piracetam experience elavil on line no script online pharmacy proscar online clonidine with no prescription can i get high from trazodone anxiety zenegra no prescription canada flomax wanted online review discount avapro mg what is endep tablets used for flagyl er online usa no prescription avodart prescription medicine enlarged prostate generic esomeprazole uk buy glucophage visa chlamydia in mouth viagra professional no prrescription buy hyaluronic acid pills online bayer aspirin coupons 2012 bupropion price walgreens cheap kamagra oral jelly generic viagra no prescription norvasc vente de aspirin au quebec buy lasix online from india lopressor shop net quando si usa il lasix cheap cialis nz citalopram with no rx fast hyzaar delivery pfizer wins viagra patent-infringement case against teva cuanto sale crema aciclovir order fml forte online is bentyl sold over the counter atarax dose kids oxytrol order online flagyl antibiotic urinary tract infection imitrex otc usa herpes medicine famvir what is differin topical gel buy cymbalta online no prescription us nasonex flonase over the counter cheap promethazine codeine med cab nizagara buy nizoral shampoo online seroflo generic cheap costs all types apcalis sx pills buy generic brahmi treating diverticulitis cipro flagyl pharmacy mexico prometrium generic lamisil safe sex power tablets girls cefadroxil online forum non prescription colored contact lenses what does decadron arthritis can you get immune to nexium buy cialis 10 mg online l-tryptophan without prescription get cyklokapron las vegas buy zetia for daily use zestoretic capsules where coversyl lynoral buy canada why is there a shortage of vytorin levitra prices rite aid generic metoclopramide no prescription no prescription atarax positive synthroid reviews donde puedo comprar cialis generico what is bupron sr used for how to buy clomephene reviews on zebeta parlodel shop net is keflex better than penicillin where can i order aleve best online pharmacy no prescription reviews generic nexium date carafate cost walmart pillole rosse tipo viagra generic pamelor no prescription plavix india price glucotrol xl dosage administration generic rumalaya gel online dipyridamole purchase order generic zestril himcolin gel application med cab tinidazole worldwide pharmacy amoxil natural testosterone replacement therapy for men yasmin generic form cong dung cua thuoc ciprobay buy cialis viagra can you buy keflex what doses does plavix come in canada buy ortho tri cyclen without prescription ephedraxin order canada tadalis sx 40mg purchase paxil on line in usa why overseas pharmacy dont accept visa buy viagra online reviews prices risperdal weight gain children viagra dosages available quibron-t over counter uk buy canada no prescription for sumycin clomid success stories in women over 40 viagra substitute zestoretic for purchase probalan in the uk rimadyl without prescriptions uk cane you buy toprol xl canadian lipitor drugs like hydrochlorothiazide shortage elavil birth control online canada canadian finpecia by safety and chep aricept buy lipitor pills mestinon brand positioning a good web page to buy lipothin with no script effexor xr no prescription compare prices is mircette available over the counter where can i buy femara online without a prescription lotrisone to buy from europe calan for sale pharmacy has best price colospa buy revia online without prescription overseas pharmacy no prescription styplon cozaar losartan forum cheap florinef for dogs buy perictin uk calcium carbonate reviews order pyridium pill clomid tablets uk tadapox refill pack levaquin in canada renagel 800 mg tab zyvox over counter uk best pharmacy to order asacol lanoxin to buy in australia buy luvox next day sinemet ordering no prescription cheapest place to buy levlen phenergan over the counter wellbutrin xl drug classification cost of tricor que es disfuncion erectil tratamiento requip xl sales buy xenical online south africa casodex 150 price over counter serevent cheap canadian pharmacy no prescription how long can azithromycin side effects last where to buy pariet without a prescription dosage keflex for uti american diabetes association aspirin use praziquantel zofran no rx viagra drug oversea generic name for glucophage pharmacies atarax depressant cheap forumi eortik kosovarja benicar generic cost chloromycetin costco calcitriol rocaltrol dosage where to buy acai berry in malaysia lipitor annual sales 2008 revatio 200 sales forzest order canada zetia coupon card what is the purpose of viagra tablets dutas overnight shipping cheap can i make digoxin india plendil price indocin drug oversea ordering meclizine here in canada vermox overnight delivery cost of lamisil generic online generic flonase online pharmacy bupropion buy nolvadex 20mg buy levitra plus online india buy prednisone with mastercard paxil without a prescription can you buy cymbalta over the counter in germany paroxetine prescription information drug purchase trimox in usa compare prices allegra prostate cancer drug finasteride s reg year of make i pill xalatan website buy abilify online no prescription uk prednisone 10 mg dose pack side effects actos lawsuits filed propecia dosage 5mg or 1 mg cipro xl 1000 mg and alcohol fluoxetine shortage metronidazole dosage for humans what is cytotechnology major why has mobic been discontinued what other drug is like cymbalta cialis jelly overnight shipping cheap valacyclovir price walgreens esomeprazole tablets spc valtrex 500 mg for sale alesse overnight non persciption sarafem korean ginseng tablets 60 blackmores z pack side effects gas artane to buy in australia synthroid no prescription pharmacy coreg overnight shipping cheap what is the net ionic equation for calcium carbonate hydrochloric acid generic propecia now available levaquin for sale usa where to buy cheap generic cytoxan generic astelin buy canada cheapest reglan in the uk cheapest lozol to buy rowlands pharmacy shenfield where can i buy avalide in canada generic clozaril buy canada atacand plus 32/12.5 difference between propecia generic finasteride research grade glucophage discount code for liverpool fc online store 2012 cytotec precio colombia forzest pills drugstore atarax medicines aristocort in canada compazine tablet sale dilantin buy online ireland haridra over the couter seroquel with paypal payment side effects from synthroid hypothyroid generic for phenergan medication can you buy levitra plus over the counter in germany chloroquine malaria dosage flagyl dogs uses promethazine spain over counter fda pharmacy student rotation bactrim order by phone best generic allegra review revatio generic 2012 body choice hoodia weight loss reviews rabeprazole & domperidone sr capsules procardia to buy in england voltaren gel side effects birth control canada buy alesse online is there a generic for depakote sprinkles provera period started while taking acheter pas cher minocycline flonase online forum membership needed click here what is bupropion hcl xl 300 canada buy doxycycline without prescription diabetes medicine actos albuterol without a prescription lisinopril 5mg is it legal to buy prescription drugs from india canadian over counter sleep aids unisom buy shampoo online australia anafranil maximum dosage voltaren dosage for adults buy yagara pills online generic valtrex usa can u buy alli canada canadian pharmacy valtrex no prescription online forum generic flonase mcg nexium tablets 40mg procardia discount voucher how to take aleve and tylenol together pediatric phenergan suppository dosage can buy tretinoin 0,05 online trazodone without a prescription from uk buy cytotec online australia no prescription buy generic aleve eurax ltd gloucestershire sumycin mist canada shoppers canada drug mart keflex price mexico pariet us companies only proventil uk buy where are parietal cells found biaxin suppliers overseas parlodel brands india is generic levitra professional effective levothyroxine vs synthroid dosage buy naprosyn boots is there over the counter treatment for chlamydia cyklokapron online uk midamor shortage buy over the counter suprax online yasmin new zealand atacand overnight pharmacy order minocin online with visa cheap amitrippline where can i order pravachol promethazine next day shipping can you crush keppra tablets midamor 10 mg do you need a prescription to buy viagra in australia buy trazodone pills online list of tesco stores selling desyrel does voltaren gel come generic price of cialis at walgreens evista tablets us online ordering prescription drugs online canada can you order prednisolone online without cheap tadalafil side effects memory loss buy lasix online no prescription usa doxycycline for dogs buy what is augmentin for dogs ultra low dose trileptal where to buy alligator clips in ontario botanical slimming tablets soft gel amaryl side effects long term use cheapest online strattera buy luvox online in usa why is there a shortage of imitrex vermox 100mg cheep buy genuine lopid uk xenical pills order prescription ciprofloxacin hcl buy keppra online with mastercard baclofen drugs information tricor pills side effects generic trazodone india natural viagra substitutes men avodart online canada generic duetact in usa reglan medicine uses better than avandamet how to save hundreds by playing the drugstore game purchase generic viagra online price of zofran 4 mg brand viagra australia pharmacy canada drugs effexor xr with prescription tadacip without a prescription from australia purchase lasix line cost of diovan from mexico pharmacy drugs and their classes uk finax from usa pharmacy order topamax online uk benadryl australia buy benadryl 100 order nexium 40 mg capsule resources for living walmart finasteride cost discount pharmacy macquarie gowrie cheap glucophage india best drugstore powder foundation for combination skin buy capoten 20 price generic yasmin birth control over the counter drugs similar to vpxl generic viagra super active overnite shipping buy lantus insulin no prescription avapro without prescription medication lamisil mexico cheap depakote uk online pharmacies prescription buy amoxil trimox acheter fucidin pommade cheap generic fml forte generic for bactroban nasal cost of zofran odt without insurance buy female viagra comprar robaxin portugal nexium 20 mg phentermine online consultation sildenafil india online order mirapex online prazosin cost canadian generic tegretol for sale on line buy ortho tri-cyclen mg rumalaya gel prices usa where to buy acne tetracycline online accutane drug reviews buy aristocort online overnight where to buy indomethacin online nizoral no prescription reviews max risperdal dose lamisil medication exelon corp historical prices aspirin dosage for pain where could i buy zanaflex without prescription dutas order online canadain pharmacy tamoxifen no prescription needed how long to wait to take antabuse ultra low dose tricor mens herbal testosterone cream buy doxycycline online uk buy cleocin gel without a script cipro mail order india lake abanakee homes for sale indian generics online deltasone glucotrol xl prescription only finax sold over counter india online pharmacy tramadol vytorin manufacturer coupon where to buy orlistat is it illegal to order generic doxycycline celexa over the couter what does robaxin contain order online cheap levitra professional geriforte reviews bupropion composition extendaquin discount tenormin side effects cough seroquel 25mg for sleep micardis uk next day delivery caverta online forum haldol side effects dementia messi stats for argentina how to by beconase aq online eldepryl capsules tadalis sx drug store online cefixime dose for gonorrhea viagra free samples pharmacy that sells albenza acquistare ventolin in italia order hydrochlorothiazide online with visa top 10 online femara sites ampicillin 20 mg ml fentanyl fluconazole interactions olanzapine brands in india risperdal dosage child actonel discount coupons plavix cost per month generic levitra online uk canada buy effexor xr free shipping is it illegal to order generic diakof safe to buy generic strattera from uk menosan discount voucher benadryl pill shortage generic betoptic no prescription we are david bailey photos purinethol legal in england bystolic medication levitra super active with american express buy baclofen 40 us online pharmacy no prescription etodolac minocycline order canada isoptin sr manufacturer buy neurontin canada amoxil no prescription fedex ups clomid cheap online walmart mail order pharmacy phone number haldol user reviews differin results forum pfizer coupons for lipitor robaxin without a prescription from us cialis super active ordering online pharmacy is viagra over the counter in philippines buy celebrex online uk order canada pharmacy viagra online get nolvadex toronto cheap compazine no prescription elavil no rx overnight us pharmacy buy sarafem astrailia comprar nexium mups celexa online prescription eurax perth australia purchase amaryl pills online pharmacy no prescription needed malegra fxt albendazole buy online india synthroid 75 mcg cost buy provera visa side effects of betnovate n purim prices cvs aricept for men sale in uk prescription acticin buy cheap without get motrin las vegas where to buy neo medrol in london low cost actos prescription where do i buy clomid online lasix weight loss reviews erythromycin prescription medication inderal dose for migraine prevention average cost of entocort what does generic furosemide look like silagra 100mg tablet what strength does benicar come in women viagra india order artane cheap can you get flomax over the counter cialis generics australia buspar generico online brand name ralista online mobic pill canadian dostinex generic name purchase snovitra super power online erythromycin in pregnancy nhs brand cialis buy uk is generic rumalaya gel effective tinidazole on line purchase viagra for sale on ebay generic brand nizoral shampoo can order eurax canada viagra professional without rx shoppers drug mart winnipeg canada prix du medicament cialis 5mg revatio sales schedule order crestor 5mg canada effects alcohol while taking azithromycin irbesartan teva 75mg voveran western australia where to get alligator meat in toronto brand amoxil medication overnight delivery flomax complaints cipro uses medication what to do when flonase doesn t work nose where can i purchase rumalaya aceon rxlist pastilla cytotec como se usa where can i buy generic prevacid buy desyrel line causas de disfuncion erectil pdf lotensin to buy in england prandin no prescription canada buy alphagan glaucoma buy zentel uk broad spectrum antibiotics for dogs buy flovent hfa betapace tablets on line to buy erythromycin tablets price alliance generics prednisolone acticin us buy cheap can you buy blood pressure hydrochlorothiazide without elavil dosage for depression viagra online uk cheapest mg best online pharmacy generic nymphomax dosis del bactrim forte when to take second dose of stromectol what is glycomet tablet buy maxalt lasix drug monograph synthroid side effects amitriptyline non generic order doxycycline buy tetracycline over the counter actos ventolin over counter usa birth control pills liver disease best high blood pressure medication with least side effects costco milton keynes address best place buy alphagan pct indinavir online pharmacy uk propecia international shipping is there a generic brand for premarin where to apply premarin cream buy skelaxin 200 unicure hair conditioner cytotec australia price feldene generic generic motrin uk paypal can i get pregnant while taking zithromax silagra drug schedule prinivil order online free fertility pills to get pregnant dipyridamole to buy in england flomax otc uk is there a drug comparative to toradol acheter zyrtec pas cher generic zovirax cream buy levaquin online india hyzaar medication cost lipitor 20 mg 90 tablet mail order antivert buy avalide generic valtrex prescription for cold sore dilantin generic and brand name over the counter gyne-lotrimin ampicillin drug bank is it illegal to order generic sinequan liposafe mail order buy celebrex paypal generic levitra plus overnite shipping ceftin generic mexico rumalaya gel where can i buy it buy brand viagra for daily use crestor sales 2012 safe buy colchicine online cialis super active overnight delivery cheapest styplon online ordering neurontin cheapest rate nizoral with prescription can you buy chloroquine online what is the generic for cardura proscar prescription drug can you buy viagra over the counter in mexico effexor xr order in the us free coupon for glycomet motilium usage vtrinaire drugswatcher lipothin tablets side effects free or low cost fluoxetine serevent uk online best price rumalaya gel femara mg buy how to order albenza online can you buy ventolin bali they generic biaxin clarithromycin bupron sr 100mg cheep aciphex pills use ceftin for sale philippines buy viagra jelly online no prescription us northwest pharmacy free shipping code can i get brand viagra buy generic trazodone comprar zetia pela internet united pharmacies imovane erexor dose cabergoline buy strattera overnight sims 3 custom content not working what does 50 mg amitriptyline look like levlen canada no prescription chloroquine and proguanil india buy hydrochlorothiazide online us no prescription buy tinidazole inhaler canada buy retin-a ge cheap buy quibron-t online india what is prednisone 10mg tablets used for dog antibiotics without prescriptions pharmacy has best price prilosec fenofibrate dose generic diltiazem 90 mg tablet order levitra professional online no prescription with a amex atarax drug in germany pharmacy asacol looking for albenza treat pinworms aspirin dose for dogs chart can you order beconase aq patient what is bystolic tablets back pain medication voltaren buy exelon no prescription extendaquin usa alli pills amazon cheapest order paroxetine paxil silagra barato resources for silagra lipothin uses medication order nymphomax online with visa what does minocin treat western drug rosuvastatin brand name cialis jelly online unisom pas cher italie xalatan patient reviews what is zithromax for kids where to colchicine price drug low cost overnight tadalis sx anafranil on the internet buy prazosin mexican pharmacies lady era shortage 2012 buy gyne-lotrimin capsules nitroglycerin ointment buy at store benadryl dosage for 100 pound dog shatavari for sale australia amaryl brand order us pharmacy online olanzapine minocin 40mg diabecon online forum alternative medicine for altace how to use doxycycline 100mg finpecia pharmacy uk proscar drug class pletal tablets uses avalide prescription discount can order vasodilan online celexa uk buy maximum cialis dosage betneval crme 0 1 buy diapers with echeck aciclovir limited india order vpxl pill get minipress toronto buy yasmin contraceptive pill online uk order naprosyn cheap order generic tretinoin 0,05 topical ivermectin for rabbits where to buy fluconazole tamoxifen generic available order elocon online uk natural synthroid over counter buy nimotop visa viagra cialis sale discount costco mail order pharmacy everett wa cheap lithium mg cvs pharmacy buy diclofenac online luvox tablets for purchase what is medrol dose pack prescribed for discount prescription meds propecia buy erection packs 2 discount viagra made in france generic pills for tadacip coreg paypal mygra sildenafil 100mg mexican pharmacy no prescription toradol is it legal to buy prescription drugs online from india canadian lansoprazole generic usa glucophage 500mg price in india vasodilan for sale philippines hydrochlorothiazide cheap us pharmacy cheap genuine plendil online strattera 40 mg abuse fucidin cream uses nose buy brand confido best site to buy capoten advair diskus wanted online review how to get cialis prescribed albendazole dosage too high zenegra over the couter levitra super active order on web best over the counter pain pills for back pain order actos online discount free shipping how to order ciprofloxacin price increase betnovate pharmacy jobs australia mail order generic keftab what is pletal made of isoptin tablets for sale ditropan oxybutynin hydrochloride tablets methotrexate without script chloramphenicol generic cheap costs effect of alcohol on tinidazole arava pharmacy prices list fastest imitrex uk delivery brand viagra canada overnight delivery how to buy ciplox online generic lamictal donde puedo comprar prandin synthroid prescription coupon can you take inderal daily no prescription prandin is allopurinol and over the counter drug actoplus met online price where can i buy fresh acai berry in the uk hydroxycut acai reviews weight loss prilosec mexico brand allergy revatio canada din actonel 35 mg comprar paroxetine now buy florinef 80 mg online pills cheap dapoxetine online generic buy generic brahmi with bonus erectile dysfunction viagra not working diflucan pill shape precose delivery uk flomax pills online in the mexico clomid success rate with pcos terbinafine tablets uses generic terramycin canada secure tabs authentic drugstore review propranolol mexico albuterol inhaler safe during pregnancy why was levothroid recall order zantac online no prescription with a amex parlodel legal us buying kamagra gold for dogs online sale of flomax international pharmacy no prescription needed generic from cefadroxil generic pioglitazone buy actoplus met rogaine 5 pharmacy generic diovan hct 160 12.5 blopress pharmacy what is anacin tablet used for order viagra super active from mexico without prescription mexican pharmacy no prescription rumalaya farmacias que venden viagra sin receta en capital federal is it safe to order kamagra chewable buy depakote pills in the australia metoclopramide with american express most reliable online canadian pharmacy cialis usa online can you get doxycycline over the counter uk no prescription viagra target vs walmart pharmacy prices no prescription order isoniazid online buy genuine avapro uk prescription drug celebrex nsaids alesse to buy in australia orlistat shortage may 2012 where to buy calanthe orchids buy cheap deltasone pills buy differin in ireland methotrexate drug store online tegretol drug schedule clomiphene dosage for men medrol uses for dogs kamagranow co uk contact us get casodex toronto purchase cialis sublingual pills co-op pharmacy jobs northern ireland crestor without script do i need a prescription for coumadin viagra dapoxetine uk tetracycline western australia where can i get lamictal pills where do i buy tadalis sx where is synthroid manufactured generic for dipyridamole buy pet medication no prescription buy brand mircette arimidex buy online us buy digoxin from canada where to get viagra in manila philippines propecia echeck order accutane 400 mg pharmacy has best price precose keppra xr generic brand cheap phenamax free delivery best place to buy pariet new depression medication 2010 indocin next day shipping cialis brand name sale tadalafil order levitra professional from india without prescription how to order oxytrol online generic zyvox buy canada chinese herbal suppliers uk avapro generic what is the generic for lamictal oral methotrexate dose for abortion azithromycin dosage chart for children best place to buy viagra forum buy trimox 15mg online what is astelin prilosec generic wikipedia drugs bactrim medication allergic reaction where can i buy alligator meat in dallas generic uk paypal ventolin trandate cheapest rate is biaxin available on line in canada rumalaya lawsuit eurax lotion generic prescription drugs elavil best place to buy valtrex in india buy diamox us discount what is rocaltrol pills used for little blue pill wilkinsons buy styplon boots pharmacy brand viagra shortage 2012 cialis super active cost in canada prescriptions online without a prescription non prescription ethionamide pharmacy depakote medication bipolar buy hyzaar 20 order kamagra online in usa when is generic nexium available boots pharmacy uk opening times what is chloromycetin for sertralina bula buy sumycin tetracycline drugs janssen cilag products order asacol online medication finasteride 5mg norvasc drugstore com blood ceftin for sale online phexin cheap uk info on bystolic medication adelgazar alli precio better than decadron como comprar cleocin gel sinequan patient reviews best place buy zestoretic pct xeloda generic letrozole finasteride dr reddys labs inc buying torsemide for dogs inderal australia price alli cost at target generic feldene safe buy mifepristone and misoprostol zestoretic price tetracycline to buy from europe mail order generic etodolac sarafem overnight shipping cheap starlix not generic what is zyban pills used for order generic plendil cymbalta class of drugs can strattera cause weight gain is it safe to order decadron american allies during the revolutionary war cefixime from mexico olmesartan losartan equivalent dose buy colchicine discount pharmacy reviewer tramadol mexican pharmacy no prescription toprol xl where to buy flying mounts alliance side effects of amoxil clavulin order diclofenac online canada doryx 150 mg savings card olanzapine drug oversea discount kamagra jelly xenical prix parapharmacie wellbutrin xl 150 prices drugstore makeup coupons 2011 casodex medication normal dose of augmentin for sinus infection effexor xr generic for when should metformin be discontinued is generic snovitra super power available in usa best place to order procardia in us orlistat online prescription haldol 10 mg tablets where to get seroquel pct blackmores ginkgo brahmi 40 tablets zoloft generic wikipedia drugs letrozole vs clomiphene citrate ovulation induction methotrexate buy on line pravachol medicine online discount coupons for alli lipothin legal in england prednisone dose pack rxlist cheapest generic lexapro flexeril muscle relaxant dosage us pharmacy board exam como comprar live gold online generic cipro antibiotic us pharmacy online remeron ?selegiline emsam side effects acivir pills pharmacies canadian online lowest how much does a lithium battery cost generic cialis professional safe ou acheter propecia pas cher purchase finpecia in uk what is cymbalta made of cost of hyzaar generic where to get zestoretic pct can you buy prescription drugs online legally luvox sublingual dosage casodex canada prescription where can i buy acai berry pills in the uk get welbrutrin astelin billig kaufen atorlip-5 next day where to buy tamoxifen uk international pharmacies online no prescription buy ophthacare boots flomax combination tegretol buy online ireland kytril patch dose buy rumalaya forte no prescription fast delivery order florinef online in usa exelon stock price chart zofran 8 mg price buy kamagra gold in ireland order cefadroxil online uk buy brand propecia 5mg zovirax ointment canada onlain igri besplatno buying cialis in malaysia generic pills for doxazosin buy geriforte syrup online amazon furosemide over the counter usa low cost avalide online generic what is ethinyl estradiol genuine prescription amantadine online ordering cheap generic zyban genuine prilosec best price purchase actos 45 45mg best sex pills in india floxin prescription coupon buy actos online at canada pharmacy tretinoin cream usp uses where can i get capoten pills can you order mircette order generic calcium carbonate cheap rx buy actoplus met styplon supplier in uk differin gel shoppers drug mart brand cialis professional 20 mg buy finast with e check what is the generic name for tricor where to get prescription drugs without prescriptions brahmi online uk mometasone furoate 0.1 blue mountain pharmacy yagara now where to purchase mircette levitra super active discount medications citalopram reviews anxiety walmart detrol price lioresal mg price mail-order lithium cheap online pet meds canada discount diet pills cheap what does lamictal rash feel like genuine cardizem best price how can i use himcolin gel atrovent drug store online benadryl from usa pharmacy existe alguna pastilla viagra para mujeres buy zerit bulk benadryl over the counter dosage best place buy betapace can you only get emsam on prescription morning-after pill (emergency contraception) colospa comprare medrol 1000 list of prescription drugs for anxiety and depression do they still sell over the counter inhalers eldepryl wiki what is the generic drug for crestor
الرئيسية | النادي اللغوي | بحوث لغوية | ملخص عن المنهج الوصفي و المعياري

صفحة شبكة صوت العربية في فيسبوكtwitterقناة شبكة صوت العربية في يوتيوبشبكة صوت العربية في موقع فليكر

ملخص عن المنهج الوصفي و المعياري طباعة إرسال إلى صديق
تقييم المستخدمين: / 44
الكاتب فوزي فهيم حسن   
الأربعاء, 27 أكتوبر 2010 16:41

المنهج الوصفي :

  ظهرت في أوروبا بوادرُ المنهج الوصفي الذي أرسى أساسه "دي سوسور" , حيث يعود إليه الفضل في بيان هذا المنهج وإظهار منافعه في الدرس اللغوي , فالمنهج الوصفي يُعنى بوصف اللغة من حيث هي تنظيمٌ قائمٌ بذاته , ولذلك يرى "دي سوسور" : أنّ موضوع اللغة أو الدراسة اللغوية الوحيد والحقيقي هو اللغة التي يُنظر إليها كواقع ٍ قائم ٍ بذاته ويبحثُ فيها لذاتها , وبذلك ابتعد عن النظر في اللغات من وجهة النظر التاريخية أو المقارنة , مؤكداً وصف اللغة في فترةٍ زمنية محددة لنصل من هذا الوصف إلى القواعد أو القوانين العامة التي تحكمها , أو نتوصّل إلى معرفة البنية أو التركيب الهيكلي لها , ولذلك يُثار إلى المنهج الوصفي في علم اللغة بأنه "علمٌ ساكن" ففيه توصف اللغة بوجهٍ عام على الصورة التي توجد عليها في نقطةٍ زمنيةٍ معينة , ليس ضرورياً أن تكون في الزمن الحاضر .

  وللمنهج الوصفي أُسسٌ عامة تتوزعها أفكارٌ تنظيمية للمنهج , وقواعد عملية في التحليل منها : أنّ الوصف لأيّ لغة ينبغي أنْ يبدأ من الصورة المنطوقة إلى الصورة المكتوبة والعكس خلاف ذلك باعتبار أنّ اللغة لها وجهان : وجه الكلام وهو الذي تنصرفُ إليه الوصفية بأهميةٍ خاصة , ووجه الكتابة , فالأولى هي المادة الخام لعملية التحليل اللغوي , والأخرى هي الصورة أو الشكل لهذا التحليل.

ويتّخذ ُ الوصف ثلاثة طرق متكاملة في تحليل الظاهرة اللغوية وُصولاً منه إلى تقعيدها وهي :

- استقراء المادة اللغوية مشافهة .

-  تقسيمها أقساماً وتسمية كلّ قسم ٍ منها .

- وضع المصطلحات الدالّة على هذه الأقسام . وذلك لنصلَ إلى وضع القواعد الكلية والجزئية التي نتجت عن الاستقراء . فالبدء بالاستقراء وتسجيل الظواهر من أهم ّ الأسس التي يعتمد عليها الوصف بخلاف المعيار الذي يبدأ بالتقعيد .

    إنّ مجال بحث عالم اللغة الوصفي يتمثّلُ في حقل اللغات الحيّة , حيثُ يمكنُ تزويد الباحث بأحد أبناء اللغة الذين يتكلّمون بها , وهو الذي يُعرفُ فنّياً باسم الراوي اللغوي (Informant) .

    ومن الأعمال اللغوية التي أفاد منها المنهج الوصفي ما يُدعى بـ (الأطلس اللغوي)  وهو بمثابة مرشدٍ إلى اللهجات الحيّة للغةٍ ما , وتتوفر فيه معلوماتٌ عن الصيغ الحيّة للغةِ أيّ بلد وخصائصها اللهجية .

ويُرسَلُ جامعو هذه الأطاليس عادةً إلى الأماكن التي يقعُ عليها الاختيار من بلدٍ ما لعمل الخرائط المطلوبة , ولا بدّ لهم من الاستعانة براو ٍ يُمثّلُ المتكلّمين المحليين . - هذه بشكلٍ بسيط - بعض الأصول الأوّلية للمنهج الوصفي . ولكنّ السؤال الذي يجبُ أن يُطرح : هلْ بدأ النحو العربي وصفياً أم معيارياً ؟ , وما هي الأسس التي يُمكن الاعتماد عليها في بيان بدء الدراسات اللغوية في العربية وكيف بدأت لنصلَ إلى إثبات أو نفي الوصفية عنها ؟ .

    يُمكن أن نحصُر الإجابة بما يلي :

- اتصال أوليات النحو العربي بالواقع اللغوي اتصالاً مباشراً , والواقع اللغوي هو الاستعمال , والاستعمال من أهمّ الركائز للمنهج الوصفي , لأنّ الوصف قرينة الاستعمال , ولا يُتصوّر وصف للغةٍ ما من غير نظرٍ في استعمالها الواقعي , والاتصال المباشر بالواقع اللغوي أصلٌ من أصول النحو الحقيقي , وقد كان أيضاً أصلاً من أصول النحو العربي نتيجة ً لطبيعة الحياة العربية وطبيعة الحركة العلميّة التي نشأت في مناخ ٍ عام أساسُه النقل والرواية . وقد أدّى هذا الاتصال إلى أن يكون في النحو اتجاه وصفي في تناول كثير ٍ من ظواهر اللغة . ومن أمثلة الاتصال بالواقع اللغوي تلقـــّي النصوص من أفواهٍ الرواة ومشافهة الأعراب والنقل عنهم مما مهّد إلى استقراء اللغة واستنباط القواعد نتيجةً لهذا الاستقراء , ومن ثمّ رأينا الدراسات العربية تتّسم بالوصف وتتأتّى إلى حدٍّ كبير عن المعيار . فالبادية كانت من أهمّ المصادر للدراسات اللغوية المبكّرة وقد درج النّحاة واللغويّون الأوائل على النقل المباشر من البادية أو غير المباشر من أفواه الأعراب الوافدين إلى المدن والأمصار .

 - إنّ منهج البحث في مدرسة الكوفة التقليدية في بداية نشأتها كان أقرب إلى المنهج الوصفي باعتماد الكوفيين أساساً على المسموع وبخاصّة النصوص , وعدم إخضاعها كلّيةً إلى القواعد , بل استنباط القواعد منها وتوجيههم نصوص القرآن واللغة والأدب هذا المنحى من المنهج وعدم تعويلهم الكبير على التأويلات البعيدة المتكلّفة , وابتعادهم عن إخضاع الدّرس اللغوي عن روح المنطق البحت .

- تناول الظاهرة اللغوية على أساس ٍ شكلي , وليس على أساس ٍ معنوي , والشكل هو الظاهر والمنهج الوصفي يُعنى بالظاهر أكثر من عنايته بما هو خلاف ذلك . فالنّحاة الأوائل كانوا يتناولون الظواهر اللغوية على أساس ٍ شكلي وهو مبدأ من مبادئ النحو الوصفي .

 نستنتج ممّا تقدّم أنّ الدراسات اللغوية في العربية قد بدأت وصفيّةً في كثيرٍ من أصولها ثمّ انتهت في الفترات المتأخرة ( لاسيّما بعد القرون الهجرية الأربعة ) انتهت إلى المعيارية , وهي في شطرها الأول عوّلت على استقراء المادة اللغوية من مصادرها الأصلية ( السماع , المشافهة ) , ثمّ استنبطت منها القواعد الكلّيّة والجزئيّة , أي جعلت القاعدة خاضعةً للاستقراء وليس العكس . أمّا في شطرها الثاني فقد أخذت بالقواعد التي انتهت إليها وأخضعت لها المادة اللغوية القديمة والمستجدّة .

وتوقّفت في استقرائها عند عصر ٍ اصطلح عليه بعصر الاستشهاد الذي يُعتبر قدحاً كبيراً في تاريخ الدراسات اللغوية العربية , فانقلب الميزان من الوصف إلى المعيار , ومن إخضاع القاعدة إلى إخضاع المادة اللغوية , من استمرارية الاستقراء , والأخذ إلى التوقّف عنهما . ولذلك وُجّهت بعض الانتقادات إلى منهج النّحاة واللغويين , فيما بعد ومن أبرز هذه الانتقادات ما أقدم عليه ( ابن مضاء ) في كتابه ( الرد على النّحاة ) الذي دعا فيه إلى إلغاء بعض الأصول الأساسية في المنهج النحوي التقليدي كالعلل والعوامل والتقديرات .

 المنهج المعياري :

   المنهج المعياري بخلاف المنهج الوصفي , قائمٌ على فرض القاعدة أي يبدأ بالكلّيات وينتهي بالجزئيات , والمنهج المعياري يعتمد القاعدة أساساً وينْأى عن الوصف , ويتأوّل لما خرج عن القواعد التي يصوغُها بإحكام شتى التأويلات أو يحكم عليها بالشذوذ والقلّة إنْ لمْ يجد فيها تأويلاً مناسباً ولو كان بعيداً أو مستغرباً .

    وعُرفت المعيارية في الدراسات اللغوية الأوروبية واستخدم لها عبارة اللغة المعيارية ( Standard Language) , أو عبارة المعياري حينما تُوصف اللغة أو النّحو أو القواعد عامة .

   وتكون اللغة المعيارية في أوّل أمرها لهجةً ً من لهجات لغة ٍ ما ثمّ ترقى إلى مستوى التقليد والمحاكاة وتتخذ ُ لها صفة رسمية لذلك قيلَ في تعريفها وبيان أسباب نشأتها : أنّ اللغة المعيارية هي ذلك المستوى الكلامي الذي له صفة ٌ رسميّة والذي يستعمله المتعلّمون تعليماً راقياً .

وغالباً ما تكون اللغة المعيارية في أوّل الأمر لهجةً محلّية , تنالُ شيئاً من التمجيد أو التقدير ويُعترفُ بها كلغةٍ رسمية ٍ لسببٍ من الأسباب .

فالمعيارية بهذا المفهوم هي اللهجة المفضّلة التي تُتّخذ مقياساً للبلاغة والفصاحة كتفضيل لهجة قريش في الدراسات العربية التقليدية على سائر اللهجات العربية الأخرى لأسبابٍ دينية وسياسية . ثمّ تكون هذه اللهجة نواةً للمنهج المعياري , وتتخذ ُ قواعدها معياراً للصحة والخطأ كما هو واضح ٌ في تاريخ العربية . ولذلك فقد نشأ النحو العربي نشأةً وصفيّة باعتماد الاستقراء ولكنّه جنح صوْب المعيارية بعد أن وضعوا القواعد والأصول وتوقّفوا عن استقراء المادة اللغوية المستجدّة فبرزت اللغة الرسمية ممثّلةً بهذا واعتبرت مقاييسه وقواعده فيْصلاً في الصحـة والخطــأ .

 ولمّا كان الهدف منصبّاً في الغالب على تعليم الناشئة وغيرهم من المثقفين والمتخصّصين رأيناهم يتّجهون بالنحو وِجهة تعليميّة , والتعليميّة أداةٌ معيارية , إذ بواسطتها يُمكن المحافظة على المستوى الصوابي لمعيارية اللغة . ثمّ تسرّب هذا المنهج شيئاً فشيئاً إلى الدرس اللغوي على مستوى التخصص البحت .

إنّ العناية التي نشأ النحو العربيّ من أجلها وهي ضبط اللغة وإيجاد الأداة التي تعصمُ اللاحنين من الخطأ فرضت على هذا النحو أن يتّسم في جملته بسمة النحو التعليميّ لا النحو العلميّ , أو بعبارةٍ أخرى أن يكونَ في عمومه نحواً معيارياً لا نحواً وصفيّاً .

  ولم يكن الغرض التعليمي سبباً وحيداً في معيارية النحو العربي بل هناك أسبابٌ أخرى من أهمها تأثّر النحو العربي بالمنطق , والمنطق الذي نعنيه هو منطق " أرسطو " الذي قال كثيرٌ من الباحثين بتأثيره في بعض الاتجاهات في الدراسة العربية القديمة ومنها الدراسات اللغوية . وهذا المنطق يُعنى بالصورة أكثر من عنايته بالمادة . ودرس اللغة ينبغي أن يركّز على المادة لا على الصورة , وتأثير المنطق على النحو يُبعده عن درس الواقع اللغوي كما هو . وعناية المنطق الأرسطي بالصورة أو الشكل جاءت نتيجةً لاهتمامه بالطبيعة الثابتة أو (الأنواع)  من حيث ماهياتها الأزليّة , ونرى أنّ تعريف الأشياء وفقاً لهذا المفهوم قد تأثّر به النحو العربي من حيث تعريف الكلّيات النحوية كأبواب الاسم والفعل والحرف والمبتدأ والخبر ..... وكانت المعيارية نتيجةً لمقدّمةٍ منطقيةٍ أرسطيّة هي النظرة إلى الطبيعة بما فيها من أنواع وأشياء نظرة ثابتة لا تتغيّر .

ومن آثار المنطق في الدرس اللغوي عند العرب هو القول بالقياس والبرهان والعلل . وقد شُغل النّحاة ولاسيّما في القرن الرابع الهجري وما تلاه بهذه المبادئ واعتبروها أصولاً للنحو . حتى أنّ الزجاجي ردّ على الذين اتبعوا سيبويه في تقسيم الكلام إلى اسم وفعل وحرف تقليداً من برهان ولا حجّة .

  ومن القضايا التي قد يُحسب أنّ لها علاقة بالصواب المطلق قضيتان مرتبطتان بالمنهج الوصفي أُثير حولهما الجدل والنقاش ووجّه بهما القدح والنقد إلى هذا المنهج وهما : المستوى الصّوابي والصّوغ القياسي .

  أمّا المستوى الصّوابي فيفترض من حيث الشكل معياراً لغوياً للصواب المطلق في اللغة ولكنّه في حقيقته غير ذلك فهو ينظرُ إلى الصّواب باعتباره مقياساً يفرضه المجتمع اللغوي الواحد فهو معيارٌ لغويٌ يرضى عن الصّواب ويرفضُ الخطأ في استعمال الصّواب والخطأ اللغويين لايمكن للمستوى الصّوابي أن يحدّدهما باعتباره فكرة يستعين بها الباحث على ذلك . وإنّما هو مقياسٌ اجتماعي يفرضه المجتمع اللغوي على الأفراد ويرجع الأفراد إليه عند الاحتكام في الاستعمال .

 أمّا ظاهرة الصّوغ القياسي فهي مقدرة خاصة اكتسابية يكتسبها الفرد في طُفولته ولها علاقة وطيدة بالمجتمع اللغوي الذي يعيش فيه , ووفقاً لها تحصل لديه ملَكة قياس صيغ لم يسمعها على صيغ ٍ قد سمعها , ومن مظاهر المنهج المعياري في الدرس اللغوي القديم :

- الأخذ من بعض القبائل واللهجات وترك قبائل ولهجاتٍ أخرى .

- إدخال بعض المناهج التي عرفت التقسيم والتحديد على البحث اللغوي مثل منهج علوم الحديث .

- وكذلك تقسيم الكلام إلى مطّرد وشاذ , وأيضاً التقدير والافتراض.

Joomla Templates and Joomla Extensions by JoomlaVision.Com
Joomla Templates by Joomlashack