american airline credit card miles 75000 credit card collection laws in india best credit cards for after bankruptcy debit card poor credit rating credit cards to rebuild your credit rating tell credit card first 4 digits hsbc credit card payment online thru billdesk did hsbc charge ppi on credit cards amex credit card fees for merchants get young money credit card gas credit card cash back bass pro shop credit card login wells fargo credit card rewards excel credit card payoff spreadsheet magnetic credit card reader writer encoder software capital city bank credit card processing how do i apply for a bank of america credit card jp morgan chase government credit card phone number gsa delta gold credit card offer best student credit cards for students with no credit best credit cards for building credit 2012 sams club credit card processing services citibank secured credit card canada how to pay my credit card off quickly credit cards with high interest rates sheraton credit card good credit cards for people with no credit can you buy stuff online with a credit card gift card verify paypal without credit card free visa credit card services number report lost victoria secret credit card interest free credit card offers uk credit cards with no annual fees australia carnival credit card review tires plus credit card what is the difference between open-end credit (credit cards) and closed-end credit (installment loans) hsbc credit card customer care number email salute visa credit card phone number hsbc credit card points rewards philippines capital one credit card trip cancellation insurance pay credit card bill american express gift card foreign credit card fees best credit cards small business rewards money amtrak credit card refund cash advance fee chase credit cards atm first usa credit card payment hsbc premier account credit card points no-signature credit card processing secured credit card capital one uk gap credit card payment online what is the best credit card points program home depot credit card payment center online best airmiles credit card usa credit card payment calculator tool best airlines credit cards 2011 best signup bonus credit card youtube hsbc best buy rewards credit card best credit card app ipod touch use amazon gift card without credit card pay gap card credit card best visa credit card balance transfer can you file bankruptcy on certain credit cards ace hardware credit card login square credit card processing best credit cards for debt consolidation credit card processing compliance fee walmart holiday credit card offer no annual fee credit card capital one delta airlines credit card reviews itunes store needs credit card can you apply credit card without ssn citibank credit card login registration college credit cards citi facebook credits gift card code bbva compass credit card pay bill low interest credit cards for college students apply for amazon.com credit card remove credit card amazon web services bon ton credit card phone number nfc credit card android credit card student singapore what is the average amount that americans are in credit card debt sony credit card breach pay hdfc credit card bill online through icici best way to accept credit cards on website minimum payment credit card definition benefits of having a virgin credit card paypal api pay credit card how to consolidate high interest credit cards popular credit cards in singapore manual credit card machines uk debt credit card settlement business credit cards with frequent flyer miles information do you need get card credit report american eagle outfitters credit card get business credit card startup business credit cards fees manage natwest credit cards online average amount of consumer credit card debt pay zales credit card account online single use credit card canada chase credit card business phone number top ten us credit card issuers american airlines aadvantage credit card gander mtn credit card login pay credit card payment online icici pay runescape membership paypal without credit card partners first credit card review continental credit card offers 50000 miles united airlines credit card benefits having credit card good credit rating how to bypass credit card verification express fashion credit card online access pay federal taxes with credit card online virgin credit cards ppi claims compare credit cards for bad credit pay tj maxx credit card bill online how to create apple account without credit card 2012 get credit card fast online popular european credit cards best credit cards for collecting air miles the best travel rewards credit cards bank america credit card login payment credit cards machines for iphone low interest balance transfer credit cards fair credit the best secured credit card to build credit valid credit card number generator free download care credit card customer service number cons of credit cards for students cancel credit card credit balance barclay credit cards online cheap interest credit cards australia credit card refund form credit union debit card legislation alaska credit card offer best 0 apr credit cards 2011 rfid credit card skimming rbs credit cards ppi american airlines credit card free flight what is a cash advance limit on a credit card citibank singapore credit card application status travelocity american express credit card log in chase freedom cash back credit cards natwest credit card services address is e platinum a credit card paying off credit cards credit score increase bank of america online banking credit card login citi american airlines credit card 30000 miles report credit card company abuse credit card settlements good best buy credit card mastercard log littman jewelers credit card account amex joint credit card aeroplan credit card pay online citibank credit card payments business gas credit cards for bad credit hdfc credit card my reward programme canadian credit card foreign transaction fees can i pay my paypal balance with a credit card premier bank credit card online payment small business credit cards airline rewards citibank indian oil credit card redeem reward points can you email credit card info icici credit card offers air ticket booking credit card form template credit cards help rebuild credit rating credit card processing terminal iphone lowe;s 0 percent credit card walt disney credit card rewards how to get the best secured credit card credit card verification value example sta travel prepaid credit card gas cards for no credit paypal credit card number for testing dd br credit card banks offering credit cards kenya my first premier credit card sign sign up chase freedom credit card wells fargo credit card customer service mailing address can pay western union my credit card cash offers on citibank platinum credit cards visa cashback credit card icici credit card india customer care credit cards with low interest rates for no credit can use credit card pay money order how do i apply for a frys credit card limited no history credit cards high risk credit card merchant accounts can you get cosigner best buy credit card government travel credit card citibank login staples credit card online rental car credit card deposit amount guild wars 2 credit card failed chase ink small business credit cards cash online shopping credit card security unsecured credit cards canada bad credit no deposit credit card for poor credit 10 free dating site no credit card required clear without bankruptcy credit card debt settlement cap credit card login bank america credit card build your credit texas law concerning credit card debt car care one credit card reviews mbna credit card balance transfers existing customers what is a security code number on my credit card sample credit card visa number methods for calculating credit card interest capital one sample credit card statement wfnnb loft credit card how do i calculate my minimum credit card payment amazon credit card 3 cashback dcu credit card rewards pay my firestone credit card credit card numbers that work 2013 apply for citi credit card uk applying for a credit card with bad credit in canada business credit cards no credit history anz transfer balance credit card how to calculate credit card interest for one month mastercard credit card protection uk delta credit card good deal credit card accountability responsibility and disclosure act of 2011 phone number for exxon mobil credit cards legally eliminate credit card debt without bankruptcy wells fargo financial bank credit cards citibank credit card account track citibank credit card status online sample credit card number cvv number testing what are pre approved credit card offers exclusive credit card uk singapore airlines credit card malaysia hdfc platinum credit card movie ticket offer pci credit card security standards best visa rewards credit card 2011 college students and credit card debt my imagine credit card penneys credit card sign credit card prepaid scotiabank pay bank of america visa credit card bill online credit card offer opt out phone number mobile credit card machines small business sallie mae credit card application is the chase sapphire credit card a visa or mastercard accept credit card payment android $5000 credit card debt monthly credit card payment formula 0 interest free balance transfer credit cards validate credit card number capital one usa credit card household credit card payment online bdo credit cards application form credit card reviews cash back view bank of america credit card statements online can you pay back student loans with a credit card orchard bank credit card member login low interest credit cards for bad credit citi government credit card login application credit cards singapore panin platinum credit card hdfc credit card reward points calculator abn amro credit card customer care phone no cancel my applied bank credit card credit card number and security code for itunes credit card detail template forms credit card declined on apple store best way build good credit credit card abn amro credit card services netherlands bloomingdale credit card online minimum credit score get discover card paypal change credit card default best visa credit card no annual fee apply credit card sears credit cards for bad credit instant approval no fee best airline mileage credit cards credit card disputes saks store credit card login rick steves using credit cards in europe taking credit cards on ipad tesco bank credit card login plaza tire service credit card online payment pay united healthcare credit card credit card comparison site usa cash back credit cards uk credit card commercial with alicia keys jessicalondon credit card payment leather credit card wallet chase bank business credit card processing credit card slider machine reconciling credit card statements in quickbooks credit card for low credit history will one missed credit card payment affect credit score best fuel credit card india canadian tire credit card online application credit card surcharge law australia credit cards interest rates comparison hdfc bank credit card helpline no credit card information security standards change credit card for android marketplace us credit cards in europe chip gold delta skymiles credit card from american express credit card credit limit 5000 credit card scores fico fidelity investment credit card halifax credit card payment protection refund cherry credits card cost how to fake a credit card number validation credit card transfers for existing customers fastest ways to pay off credit card debt ge money credit card customer service best air mile rewards credit cards credit card applications instant approval australia credit card for bad credit rating australia student can;t get credit card how to build good credit with a credit card irs quarterly tax payments credit card accept credit cards for free credit cards that build credit history apply credit card online barclays bank sign up square credit card reader home depot credit card contact address chase credit card united credit card not reporting to credit bureau discover credit card payments on line benefits of balance transfers on credit cards hsbc credit card cash back rewards credit card that will accept anyone what is the best credit card for no credit history credit cards that help you rebuild credit credit card reporting agencies amex centurion credit card platinum square credit card payments android minimum payment amazon com credit card how to change credit card details on groupon hdfc online credit card payment gateway guaranteed credit card uk united credit card 50000 can you pay student loan payment credit card foreign credit card fee lawsuit consumer bill rights credit cards best travel credit cards 2011 canada star wars credit card uk hdfc credit card card customer care number maybank credit card redemption catalogue 2012 malaysia can accept credit cards paypal premier account apply for tiger direct credit card chase credit card rewards points hsbc credit card india registration i;m in credit card debt denied credit card hurt score compound interest calculator credit card daily advanta credit card class action lawsuit best business travel credit card canada 0 transfer fee credit cards regions credit card bill pay average interest rate credit cards canada apply for a citi credit card by phone do you need credit secured debit card free credit card number that works 2013 accepting credit card payments by cell phone sainsburys credit card customer services contact number can i get a co signer for a credit card gap credit cards bill pay can i get cash back with my credit card can you pay credit card through paypal canadian travel rewards credit card comparison virgin credit card transfer money into current account pay shell credit cards line best credit card with 0 percent interest how to get secured credit card cash back credit card comparison chart what is a credit card annual fee bank america credit card black card cash reward credit cards eclipse credit card machine ink citibank credit card platinum select credit card ranking malaysia how to activate a credit card over phone wells fargo business credit card log template letter claiming credit card charges capital one student credit cards pay student loan with credit card sallie mae hsbc secured credit card orchard bank punishment credit card default india can you transfer credit card debt to another card credit card processing iphone uk credit cards repair bad credit get credit cards with no credit history getting a credit card with no credit history accept credit cards with iphone 4 airline credit card comparison credit card for gas only remove credit card info apple id union plus credit cards rewards credit card pay off each month aurora as890c 8-sheet cross-cut paper/credit card shredder compare best airline credit cards credit card section 75 part payment redwood credit union secured credit card paypal credit card approved countries credit cards with low interest rates in canada asiana airlines credit card american express natwest credit card customer services telephone hsbc credit card travel insurance australia creating an itunes app store account without a credit card on iphone united air credit card promotion business credit cards zero percent balance transfer wachovia securities credit card login credit card phishing script credit card deals credit card crackdown targets hidden fees of internet booking delta skymiles credit card offer airline credit card offers 24 month 0 interest credit card does itunes need credit card info credit card powerpoint presentation templates credit card number with cvv2-code can i pay by credit card without paypal account how to delete credit card from play store stop pre approved credit card offers discover card credit services credit cards 0 low interest rates bankruptcy on credit cards what;s the difference between using debit or credit on your debit card union workers credit card catalog hsbc credit card complaints india citi shell credit card log in do credit card numbers get compromised best department store credit card best wireless credit card terminals navy federal credit card activation phone number pci compliance storing credit card info td credit card rental insurance orbitz capital one credit card login which credit card is easy to get in canada gamestop credit card policy credit cards like horizon gold cvv number on credit card icici wells fargo secured credit cards to rebuild credit citibank credit card customer care number pune paypal credit card apply uk difference between american express and visa credit card compare business credit card rewards pan credit card length hdfc platinum credit card features sears hsbc credit card payment address best credit card deals 2012 merrick bank credit card bill pay bank credit card how to change credit card itunes create apple account without credit card number credit card approvals by credit score aeropostale store credit card credit card special offers canada song-beverly credit card act pineda credit rating building credit cards the best credit card for no credit history credit card machines small business canada pay comerica credit card bill online secured business credit cards to rebuild credit debt consolidation credit card loan does chase offer secured credit cards best credit card high school student free prepaid mastercard credit cards sbi credit card offers on electronics how do credit card vending machines work make hsn credit card payment credit card payment form example pottery barn credit card online payment please ing creditcard klantenservice what percent of americans are in credit card debt how do you find out if there is a credit card in your name standard chartered manhattan credit card payment online india clark howard credit card counseling low credit card apr rates can wages be garnished for credit card debt in california citibank credit card bill payment cheque smart phone credit card swiper credit card 0 transfer offers virtual credit card number visa can i pay credit card bill with paypal best credit cards india credit card with airline miles rewards hdfc bank credit card customer care phone no chennai ann taylor loft credit card number consumer credit card protection act pay paypal bill me later credit card my premier credit card login pacsun credit card rewards credit card ipad iphone titanium platinum credit card different how long do i have to activate a credit card ambank credit card promotion 2011 intuit merchant services credit card fees state farm bank visa student credit card us air barclays credit card tyvek credit card sleeve protector envelope chase credit card application offer unavailable bp credit card customer service phone number can you apply for credit cards online best credit cards to apply for with bad credit sign up capital one credit card best business rewards credit card 2009 best american airline credit card halifax credit card debt recovery disney credit card chase sign hdfc credit card login reward points best credit cards american express blue cash do bank of america credit cards cover rental car insurance horizon gold credit card login difference between classic gold platinum credit cards what are the best types of credit cards is your social security number on your credit card barclays bank delaware credit card payment address monthly payment plan credit cards citibank credit card platinum vs titanium best balance transfer credit card 2012 activate my wells fargo credit card capital one credit card travel points ipad credit card swipe (magtek idynamo) free credit report online without using a credit card value city furniture credit card application credit cards in canada for no credit credit cards generator download free dell credit card payment phone number printable credit card receipt template credit card companies visa mastercard discover best australian credit card balance transfers radio shack credit card swiper target credit card payment in store the limited credit card air flight reward credit cards credit card checker algorithm global credit card transactions us bank secured credit card approval can you pay your credit card bill money order priority club select visa credit card chase continental visa credit card login mileage plus credit cards zero interest no transfer fee credit europe bank romania card avantaj report lost old navy credit card opt out credit cards gov paypal temporary credit card canada credit card offers for people with no credit history best delta miles credit card how secured credit cards build credit why can;t you pay your mortgage with a credit card fidelity credit cards how do you sign up for itunes without using a credit card first premier bank credit card services what is the best american airlines credit card citibank login credit card government best hotel credit card canada marriott third party credit card authorization form foreign transaction fees credit cards canada hello kitty credit card citi credit card virtual account rfid credit cards youtube credit card case hsbc credit card contact number chennai bankruptcy vs settlement credit card debt can you use credit card put down payment car old navy credit card online payment center accept credit cards with my iphone natwest black credit cards uk application for a walmart credit card in canada government sponsored credit card debt relief programs redeem reward points hdfc credit card platinum plus costco merchant credit card processing review best retail credit cards 2011 sony credit card moved chase all care dental credit card anz panin credit card secured credit cards from major banks pay macy s credit card chase purchase interest charge credit card should cancel credit cards annual fee my first premier credit card apply apply secured chase credit card credit card reform act 2012 text merrill lynch credit card login cancelling credit cards when someone dies room store credit card hsbc login your citi credit card statement is ready to view online spam bp credit card login apply standard chartered credit card malaysia low interest rate cash advance credit cards standard chartered titanium credit card super value ge capital credit card sign in citi business credit card customer service number credit card swiper for android tablet quicken credit card processing kit gmac credit card payment online hsbc india credit card payment options balance transfer credit card offers bad credit stop credit card convenience checks blank pay income tax with credit card dental credit card plans credit cards today;s society consumer report best credit cards 2011 nra credit card payment el dorado credit card itunes needs credit card information pay direct access credit card online barclays credit card india apply which credit card should i get first credit card machine best visa credit cards for college students discover student more card credit limit what is the best credit card to have for building credit discover credit card app status first usa credit card online cap one credit card payment address need fake credit card information giving cancel lost aib credit card business credit cards frequent flyer miles how to pay credit card bill with cash credit card exchange rates europe best credit card for small business 2010 credit credit cards gemb lowes credit card customer service great western bank credit card login verizon wireless charging credit card payments apply credit card low credit juniper credit card customer service phone number hdfc credit card secure code reset my first credit card no credit first merchants bank credit card login first flight courier tracking credit card credit cards for no credit students no annual fee compare interest free balance transfer credit cards credit card pos machine singapore td canada trust travel credit card credit card payoff spreadsheet calculator low security deposit credit cards best airline credit card offer 2011 credit cards balance transfer deals smartphone credit card payment secured credit card bad credit why does itunes need my credit card details what if i can;t pay my credit cards anymore pay off credit cards fastest ppi credit card processing commonwealth bank credit card application time international credit card processing iphone cruise credit card rewards natwest credit card online jc penny credit card contact information redemption eon bank credit card catalogue taking credit cards with cell phone compare best frequent flyer credit cards easiest unsecured credit card get bad credit state of texas credit card laws bloomingdales credit card payment phone number government credit card citi visa java credit card expiration date validation credit card numbers and security codes list can i get cash back with a credit card at a store the home depot credit card payment online bankrate;s 2011 credit card rewards survey want to rent a car no credit card pay boa credit card gas card credit application chase continental credit card 35000 miles onestopplus visa credit card pay my best buy hsbc credit card online reviews merrick bank credit cards apple store ipod touch credit card reader barclays credit card usa taking credit card payments online hsbc best buy rewards credit card hsbc state employees credit union credit card why don;t aldi accept credit cards credit card payment calculator amortization schedule wells fargo medical credit card best credit card get flyer miles sears solutions credit card sign in what is better a loan or credit card best way build credit without credit cards debt credit card payoff calculator can pay my limited credit card store is there an aeropostale credit card credit card benefits uk fake working credit card numbers with cvv2 0 interest rate credit cards canada swiss credit card miles and more discover credit card forum how can you get a credit card fast poor credit gas cards credit card authorization template credit card receipt template free credit card pin numbers leaked what address do i send my walmart credit card payment to is it safe to send credit card details via email credit one card payment online best flight reward credit card canada; best prepaid credit cards to rebuild credit chase credit card rate reduction hdfc credit card bill payment through neft should i use my debit card as debit or credit good credit cards apply bad credit wow annual pass cancel credit card reverse lookup credit card number easy unsecured credit card approvals hdfc platinum credit card offers 2011 tesco credit card free phone number temporary credit card uk application for credit card playstation network says my credit card not valid what stores give cash back on credit cards free online movies no credit cards credit one credit card payment login get a credit card at 16 cheapest interest rate credit card 0 percent cash advance credit cards payday loans prepaid visa credit cards free online fax no credit card required parisian credit card ge sbi credit cards online american credit card processing services united air credit cards credit card cosigner after bankruptcy my amazon credit card limit need help with debt on credit cards where to buy manual credit card slips rental car credit card hold amount see if you pre qualify for credit cards what is the best american airlines rewards credit card credit card offers no interest year are all credit cards unsecured debt what is a minimum finance charge on a credit card harassing phone calls credit card companies uk new horizon credit card review security code credit card itunes easy credit card approvals bdo credit card application online southwest airlines credit card chase how to change credit card information on iphone chase credit card payment online login instructions of reserve bank on atm/debit card operations or credit card operations what a good credit card for first time should apply two credit cards same day icici credit card apply chennai disney credit card free gift card good credit cards for ok credit how to get a bp gas credit card bank of hawaii airlines credit card amazon rewards visa card credit score credit score for free no credit card needed commonwealth student mastercard credit card pay maurices credit card affinity credit cards canada bank of america use credit card at atm credit card number generator cvv expiration date 2011 reporting credit card fraud credit card cvc visa barclaycard credit card interest rate can you get a credit card with a bad credit rating citibank credit card complaints 2011 sbi credit card reward points gifts how to pay target credit card bill hsbc credit card phone calls diners club credit card number format credit cards for students with no credit history high school citibank credit card interest calculation how can i find out what credit cards i have had what is a real credit card number airline credit cards for people with average credit citibank credit card annual fee philippines dbs credit cards dining promotions government help high credit card debt free credit report with no credit card info credit card debt and applying for a mortgage chase freedom credit cards phone number opt out of credit card offers online prepaid credit cards reviews canada canadian getting credit card in usa free credit reports no credit card needed can you pay your target credit card online mbna platinum credit card visa new credit card disclosure act can you use a credit card to get cash from an atm credit card for business canada can you make a walmart credit card payment in store sears credit card rewards points best credit cards for shopping in india building credit score with a credit card can you pay with 2 credit cards on ebay marathon credit card comenity best balance transfer no fee credit cards good credit cards for people with poor credit how to pay off my bank of america credit card can i pay a chase credit card bill at a chase bank pay for car with credit card credit card processing for small business reviews best sign up bonus credit card 2011 javascript credit card validator best bank to open a credit card difference between best buy credit card reward zone mastercard how to build your credit score using a credit card how to get anonymous credit card delta airlines credit card offer president;s choice credit card 5000 credit card limit what credit card types does paypal accept best banks get secured credit card top balance transfer credit cards best 0 credit cards for self employed accept credit cards small business canada american express credit card no social security number petro canada credit card online credit card bin checker online best travel credit cards in canada credit card receivables definition navy federal credit union credit card rewards points payday loans no credit check debit card 28 degrees credit card contact chase credit card log ion how do i apply for a credit card visa best interest free credit card offers fake visa credit card number works citibank online credit card payment india eligibility get sbi credit card temporary credit card number bank of america credit card info that works online comparison shopping credit card answer key chase slate credit card grace period early payoff calculator credit cards credit one bank card activation credit card travel insurance get free credit score no credit card credit card gives american airline miles citi health card vs care credit visa credit card for good credit redeem cimb card credit credit card limit 2000 bad credit credit card bad credit instant approval uk best hotel reward credit cards 2011 credit card reform act 2008 obama hsbc gm credit card login credit card debt excel template virgin atlantic credit card benefits anonymous prepaid credit card list of credit card issuers in us chase credit card with 5 cash back chase platinum credit card limit add prepaid credit card paypal indiatimes shopping credit card offers ann taylor loft credit card account login use credit card on paypal standard credit card apr chase bank usa na credit cards mccoy us federal reserve system;s credit card comparison chart can i refinance my mortgage and pay off credit cards army credit card low credit credit cards unsecured credit cards no annual fee bad credit keychain clear credit card holder student credit card wells fargo retail store credit cards bad credit how do i find out how many credit cards i have getting company credit card bad credit can you pay your best buy credit card with another credit card payoff car loan or credit cards apply visa credit card td bank non secured credit cards people bad credit bank of america credit card signature visa credit card airline miles comparison how to get loan to pay off credit card debts paypal sandbox sample credit card number gold delta skymiles credit card benefits etrade credit card login ual credit card review chase international credit card charges free online credit card merchant case mate iphone 4s credit card case ultra diamonds credit card log in credit card apps for ipad hsbc credit card payment online icici free credit report with no credit card info needed shopping credit cards online how to send money from my credit card to my bank account prepaid visa credit card uk credit cards rates going up free credit card swipe cell phone best prepaid credit card for australia washington mutual bank credit card agreement can you withdraw cash from credit card gas rebate credit card offers credit cards for children under 18 merchant warehouse credit card processing login credit card reform act 210 late fees alaska airlines credit card free companion ticket american express credit card payment login hdfc credit card atm pin sear credit card customer service number prepaid credit card reviews ratings credit card letter template credit card apr calculation example citi rewards credit card review best rated credit card company cube credit card iphone mtvu credit card sign how to get american express credit card with bad credit best buy mastercard credit card hdfc credit card official website hdfc bank application form for credit card visa credit card with low apr credit cards number that work with cvv what is considered excellent credit score for credit cards citi card credit card sign in can you pay honda finance credit card 3 digit numbers back credit card wachovia secured credit card to rebuild credit brylane home credit card best flight rewards credit card bankruptcy credit card debt laws best credit card service companies get instant approval credit card bad credit cancel chase credit card payment protector chase credit card log n frontline secret history of the credit card dvd prepaid credit card paypal uk chase sapphire credit card bonus chase freedom credit card 150 cash back walmart prepaid credit card review credit card solution bob lindsey cancel credit card avoid annual fee aa credit card login in department stores national bank credit cards capital one bank credit card application status i need a mastercard with a high limit but i have bad credit credit card for small business canada hawaiian air credit card how to create apple id without credit card info credit cards cash back rewards no annual fee best credit card comparison site electronic credit card holder best retail rewards credit cards cash back credit card walmart credit card processing for android phone citibank credit card cancellation fee jcp credit card offer top credit card balance transfer offers apply visa credit card bad credit southwest air credit card how to get credit card numbers that work chase small business credit card ink credit cards no cash advance fee debit office depot credit card application form credit card imprinters uk citibank emirates credit card uae credit card processors canada pay rent with credit card online pay my belk credit card loan vs credit card debt free smart phone credit card reader hsbc visa credit card online registration citibank credit card payment center mumbai consolidate mortgage credit card debt pay credit card bill hsbc online banking magtek usb credit card swiper no credit card credit report online visa credit card payment online india best practices for storing credit card information rbs credit card online services log apply for credit card best rates bank america credit card awards best credit card for travel rewards reviews longest interest free purchases credit card virgin airlines credit card bank of america credit card online enrollment citibank credit card status check malaysia change credit card billing address disney chase credit card reviews bass pro shops credit card review hsbc orchard credit card payment how does skimming credit cards work average credit card debt per family usa sabb credit card shield 20 best unsecured credit cards bad credit pnc business credit card sterling credit card processing review chase online credit card services easy store credit cards after bankruptcy office depot credit card account login star alliance credit card how do i pay my gape credit card bill online zero interest credit cards balance transfer singapore air mileage credit card american express credit card logo eps credit cards promotions balance transfer can you freeze a credit card in ice free dating site no credit card finding local capital one payment credit card should you purchase credit card insurance visa credit card comparison australia elan financial services credit card credit cards with 0 apr on balance transfer and no transfer fee charles schwab credit card logon help eliminating credit card debt plastic credit cards printing best credit card for wedding expenses charter one credit card payment rc willey credit card payments florida law unpaid credit card debt are lowes credit cards hard to get bloomingdales credit card levels hotel credit card authorization form template cash advance from credit card at bank should i transfer my credit card balance to a new card pulaski bank credit card review barclays interest free credit card capital 1 credit card payment online pier 1 credit card sign in pay off credit card debt with 401k citibank student credit card review delta american express credit card log credit card consolidation loan gov city bank credit card application online hsbc direct rewards credit card application credit cards easy approvals first flight courier credit card walmart credit card account balance credit card printing companies singapore free phone no creditcard needed government loans to pay credit card debt axis bank easy credit card paypal pay credit card through paypal etsy nea credit card sign in credit cards cashback compare and contrast credit cards and debit cards easiest credit cards to get approved for canada make capital one payment credit card issue number credit card visa debit credit card limit too high can u pay money order credit card master credit cards numbers compare credit card processing uk formula for interest rates on credit cards chase circuit city credit card customer service advance cash credit cards best credit card payment systems business credit card walmart bad credit cards guaranteed approval uk free cvv credit card number how do i make payments on my walmart credit card test credit card numbers with cvv2 can pay hsbc credit card payment online bank america visa credit card pin number best credit card with rewards canada frontier airlines credit card customer service pay citibank credit card bill cash can you buy postal money orders with a credit card credit card amortization calculator payoff fair credit cards uk best deal air miles credit cards accept credit cards online square create apple account without giving credit card details easily available credit cards in india ink credit card chase td credit card services phone some random credit card numbers visa credit cards travel rewards foreign currency credit cards canada pay hdfc credit card bill through cheque chase best buy credit card payment mail lowe credit card payment ge capital credit card payment mailing address opt out receiving credit card offers mail how do i pay paypal with credit card vanquis credit card login credit card with miles bonus staples credit card credit card miles offers apple id credit card no electronic payments credit card processing can get credit card 700 credit score pay chase marriott credit card top 5 credit cards with rewards gemb old navy credit card customer service apply for shell credit card uk transfer money from credit card to credit card account boa credit cards phone number apply for credit card with high limit who has the best credit card rewards program exclusive credit card india unsecured credit cards for bad credit reviews radio shack credit card refund aa 50000 miles credit card credit card loyalty program comparisons exxon mobil credit card pay my bill bankrate credit card calculator minimum payment best reward credit card small business bank of america credit card balance check sony ge credit card login shell gas credit cards rewards citibank online credit card quick inquiry bank of america credit card offer codes pay my lic premium online through credit card can you buy gift card credit card online application credit card hsbc bank chevron credit card payment mailing address pay my gap credit card bill work banks processing credit card applicants buy credit cards details lic online payment through sbi credit card free prepaid credit cards visa hsbc secured credit cards application credit card processing reviews uk navy federal credit union credit card agreement no swipe credit card reader applying for credit card lower your credit score hdfc bank credit card + airline offers cancel your american express credit card mastercard credit card application for bad credit easy credit card application online citibank credit card offers india no credit history credit cards for students legal credit card questions easy to get credit card ireland does chase offer student credit cards best credit card to earn free flights free credit card terminal .pdf revolving credit card balance direct merchants bank credit card payment amazon credit card points program walmart prepaid credit card initial credit limit discover student card top 10 secured credit cards for bad credit chase pay credit card mail credit card merchant compliance fee credit card payment form template appliance smart credit card credit cards for building credit history top 10 secured credit cards credit card holder ebay india reloadable credit cards for minors can you send money from paypal to credit card special offers citibank credit cards how to review apple id account without credit card us credit card issuer ranking credit card lesson plans for high school westpac debit card credit limit new credit card with balance transfer disney credit card make payment wells fargo transfer money credit card checking account compare credit card mileage programs can pay my target credit card store paying off credit cards financial calculator photocopy credit card travel credit card slips office depot radio shack credit card customer service phone number free credit score check without credit card required how to solve credit card problems in india how long does it take a secured credit card to build credit discover secured credit card number back of credit card see id marathon credit card online payment alaska credit card airlines american express delta credit cards poor credit card canada credit card credits morgan stanley credit card uk contact can you get cashback from a credit card at a store chase bp credit card login online visa credit card verification can you pay a credit card with a different credit card open a secured credit card with bank of america opt out credit card offers small business credit card insurance cover credit card repayment calculator cnn quick trip credit cards gas pay hsbc credit card bill icici online banking credit card payment processor online fidelity credit card offer ing direct credit card rewards what is the monthly payment on 2000 on credit card are credit card rebates income hdfc credit cards rewards program can you get a credit card if your under 18 tjx credit card sign in chase bank credit cards college students jp morgan chase credit card points chase credit card bank phone number best credit cards just starting out capital one credit card customer service mailing address icici titanium credit card register apple store without credit card information paid off credit card now what cvs credit card gift card get secured credit card uk long does take paypal process credit card payment difference between southwest credit cards write off bad debt credit card bad credit rebuilding credit cards best credit card balance transfer offers 2012 retail store credit cards for fair credit credit cards no transfer fee balance transfers bank of hawaii credit card application apply cabelas visa credit card neiman marcus credit card payment online credit card act 2009 effective date credit card terminal vendors sportsmans guide credit card hdfc visa gold credit card statement hsbc credit card activation philippines capital one journey credit card review best credit card iphone case amazon store credit card reviews stop getting pre approved credit card offers what canadian banks offer secured credit cards pay your american eagle credit card credit cards with air miles mastercard how to apply credit card in rcbc if you pay your credit card one day late paypal debit card credit report charge vat credit card surcharge best credit card deals lowest apr maybank credit card service tax can pay my mortgage credit card wells fargo citi bank secured credit card canada credit card generator 2013.rar free download buxton fan credit card holder pin and chip credit cards in the us td bank credit card rewards site tj maxx credit card theft wiki citgo credit card log ufcw credit card payment money back credit card canada empty prepaid credit cards numbers my capital one credit card payment how to lower credit card debt exxon mobil credit card services can you get a sears credit card with no credit credit card freeze interest letter sams club credit card bill payment how to use amazon points from credit card process credit cards on your website bank of america credit card login account cash advances on credit cards fees united airlines credit card baggage fees how to calculate credit card payoff in excel what is the best balance transfer credit card offer ashley furniture credit card online payment citi virtual credit card machine womens metal credit card holder apply aeropostale credit card online how to apply for household bank credit card credit card can only used gas saga platinum credit card abroad best credit cards for poor credit score can buy prepaid visa card credit card royal caribbean cruise line credit card how to pay your victoria secret credit card online credit card log on credit card processing review top 10 credit card debt payoff schedule vistaprint business credit card apple credit card details do you need credit card abuse paypal credit card requirements citibank philippines discover fair credit cards td credit cards rewards kotak credit card offers on movie tickets how can i get money to pay off my credit cards can you use a discover credit card at an atm best credit card get free flights swa credit card offer legally erase 60 of credit card debt amex credit card starting numbers poor credit card companies compare travel points credit cards chase amazon credit card pay best air miles reward credit card orbitz credit card points household finance credit card payments difference between charge card and credit card credit card payment form microsoft word top up orange phone credit card i have very bad credit and need a credit card easy credit cards to get with no credit history credit card calculators excel what credit cards build credit fast citibank government credit card online account southwest airlines credit card free flight offer credit card chargeback lawsuit transfer money from credit card to bank account via paypal kohls credit card services payment best credit card mastercard visa log into my orchard bank credit card make irs payments by credit card starbucks credit card hdfc credit card add card application form spirit airline credit card reviews lost credit card bank of ireland hdfc credit card reward points catalogue 2012 opus credit card payment can i use a personal credit card for business expenses bank of america merrill lynch credit card login marriott credit cards canada upgrade walmart credit card discover list bank credit card numbers manhattan credit card hong kong free vector credit card symbols best reward credit cards for travel 2011 best credit cards for recent college graduates debit machines com low cost credit card can iphone swipe credit card what is an annual membership fee for a credit card credit card statements for mortgage credit card default rates 2010 ryanair credit card booking fee credit card number with money on it list top 10 credit card processors bank of america credit cards pre qualify co branded credit cards india web based credit card processing solution generate valid credit card numbers uk credit cards instant decision online credit card applications secure business credit cards with bad credit how to accept credit card payment through paypal standard credit card size pixels does aldi accept credit cards chase credit card atm pin number low interest rate on transfer balance credit cards credit card payment form template pdf wells fargo retail credit card make payment college student credit card limit sbi credit card login page visa credit card bad credit application credit card repayment calculator absa open credit card capital one bank mbna business credit card contact credit card machine leasing companies citibank credit cards payment credit card purchase insurance uk apply for bon ton credit card national express credit card problems best way to get cash from your credit card secured credit cards build credit score capital one credit card secured kohls credit card payment sign in back best card cash credit all credit cards list uk capital one sony credit card login apply academy sports credit card prepaid credit cards bank of america best 0 on purchases credit card deals create apple account without credit card how do you sign up for itunes without a credit card get credit card companies stop sending checks ask them how do i check my credit card billing address norton free trial without credit card what does it mean if your credit card is compromised 0 transfer credit card offers compare credit card reward programs uk hdfc credit card gold emi online apply hdfcbank credit card current credit card interest rates uk marriott hotel credit card second chance credit card application credit card blacklist malaysia usbank login credit card us bank cash rewards visa platinum credit card how to apply for target credit card free fax trial no credit card needed pay rent with credit card free chase credit card smart chip top rated credit cards for travel what is an agreement number for a credit card 0 credit card balance transfer australia dillards credit cards login wawa credit card nordstroms credit card application status how do you get prepaid credit card credit cards widely accepted south africa hsbc online credit card application status horizon gold credit card application get discover card bad credit credit card sales officer job description bank of america alaska airlines credit card payment mercedes benz credit card rewards credit card payment systems augusta ga bank of america worldpoints credit card sign in test credit card authorization system credit card processing system+ppt pay my new york company credit card does agoda charge your credit card morgan stanley credit card uk address slumberland credit card application geico credit card application paying tjx credit cards online process credit cards paypal credit card application instant use can credit card company lower your credit limit without notification preloaded credit card india credit card act of 2010 effective date credit card default rates state can you use credit card if its expired southwest credit card annual fee waived how do i use my credit card at an atm best bank first credit card credit card reform act summary 2011 citibank credit card settlement negotiations leather credit card holder with plastic sleeves best deals for student credit cards credit cards with 0 balance transfer fee and 0 interest zero interest credit cards australia visa credit card numbers that work with cvv2 hsbc apply status bank credit card best way accept credit card small business register santander online credit card british airways credit card visa king soopers credit card credit card images uk kays credit card customer service phone number reduce credit card interest canada applying for a ikea credit card online apple ipad credit card swiper credit cards build credit no credit how to add money to paypal without credit card or bank account legacy credit card phone number average credit card processing fees 2011 xbox 360 credit card hack credcer credit union cardigan best credit card money back deals absa student credit card online application credit card machines uk https online access my credit card goodys citibank credit card settlement offer stimulus money help credit card debt usaa credit card services login transfer money india through credit card scheels credit card canceling credit cards good bad best buy mastercard credit card log capital one student credit card limit best credit cards to build credit after bankruptcy best retail credit card processing ge money credit cards pay online discover credit card logo download american express credit cards delta sky miles free paypal credit card logos bank of america secured credit card review compusa credit card hsbc payment kohl credit card customer service number best credit cards for balance transfer with bad credit iphone 4g case with credit card holder credit cards with low apr for bad credit how does a capital one secured credit card work chase credit card british airways offer 100k does having high credit card balance affect credit score citibank credit card exchange rate sg my citi credit card account credit cards logos website long does take get new credit card mail citibank credit cards account log in delta community credit union secured credit card natwest credit card phone number activate card emirates nbd platinum credit card offers good credit card offers capital one bank credit card nationwide credit card cash advance fee online payment to american express credit cards credit card interest free period works addendum to the code of conduct for the credit and debit card industry in canada orchard bank credit card payment log low interest loans to pay off credit cards what is the best way to get out of credit card debt pier 1 imports credit card wfnnb unsecured business credit cards bad credit prepaid debit cards that build credit 0 interest free credit cards for 12 months variable vs fixed rate credit cards free movies online no credit card use getting a credit card with bad credit history most elite credit cards 2012 credit card checks them to stop sending does costco take american express credit cards lowes visa credit card complaints virgin atlantic credit card online login fake working credit card numbers with security code credit cards iphone canada how to manage your credit card debt what happens to credit card debt on death best bonus miles credit cards minimum payments credit cards applied college credit card no cosigner mango credit card canada how many numbers are on a credit card for a visa how to rent a car without a credit card in florida dbs credit card bonus points bank america credit card atm cash world market credit card customer service fees overseas credit card use credit card process diagram student credit card discover best air mile credit cards uk how can i apply for american express credit card hsbc credit card annual fee complaints credit card secure chip chase credit card mileage plus united free online credit card calculators best credit cards have first time can you get credit card credit score 500 best aeroplan credit card 2012 nab credit card insurance travel preloaded credit cards euros ge money credit card address leather fan-out business/credit card holder with contrast stitching documente necesare card credit banca transilvania register hdfc credit card netbanking lost natwest credit card abroad credit card hardship letter sample walmart credit card payment address meineke credit card ge pay my sunoco credit card bill chase credit card credit score requirements can you use a visa gift card to pay a credit card pay orchard credit card bill online tesco credit card fuel discount td credit cards for students do you need to have a credit card to get a mortgage credit card debt lawyers las vegas icici bank credit cards online payment credit score no credit card required how to pay southwest credit card online how to get first credit card with no history shell oil credit cards online payment 1099 reporting requirements credit card payments toysrus credit card payment pay credit card victoria secret chase continental credit card 25000 miles 5466 credit card prefix chase credit card debt help alaska airlines credit card canada mastercard credit card settlements affect credit score whats the cvv number on a credit card capital one secured credit card uk credit card number with cvv2 number and expiration date credit card declined codes chase chase credit card machines for small business premier designs credit card credit card starting with 4266 credit card payment machines uk virgin credit card points spend natwest credit card address top retail credit cards sbi credit card toll free number india netsecure smartswipe credit card reader model no. 138 review credit operations fia card services citi credit card bill pay online best credit card machine deals credit card charges calculator prepaid credit cards for traveling abroad cheapest credit card rates ireland where can i pay my sams club credit card accepting credit card payments small business uk prepaid credit card free atm penfed credit card points rewards credit card best buy small company credit card machine shell gasoline credit card payment mbna smart cash credit card review credit card breach insurance wells fargo retail credit card pay how to open a credit card business city bank platinum credit card offers iphone credit card app mobil oil credit card payments american airlines aadvantage credit card no annual fee j crew credit card rewards program credit card costs pay wells fargo home mortgage credit card how to opt-out of citi credit card offers elavon merchant credit card processing reviews phillips conoco credit card login credit card can get fair credit score how to pay off my lloyds credit card the credit card that you have provided could not be authorized. xbox 360 google checkout change credit card mobile united air miles credit card enacted federal regulations regarding credit card billing practices hdfc customer care - credit card phone number quickbooks credit cards online best money back credit card canada standard chartered credit card india redeem points credit card through paypal safe need credit card fastest have bad credit citibank credit card site ntb credit card payment login capital one small business secured credit card credit card applications best travel credit cards with no annual fee gander mountain credit card contact number square credit card for ipad chase military star credit card payment free credit reports without credit card canada manhattan credit card customer care number chennai compare credit card interest rates australia getting approved credit card no credit history barclays credit card apply in india credit card cash advance fee definition platinum credit card post office virtual us credit card number bobs furniture credit card login hdfc credit card offers cash back bank of america visa credit card foreign transaction fees credit cards air miles comparison discover credit card payment address why do i need a credit card for free apps amazon business credit card southwest airlines anz lost credit cards number home depot commercial credit card customer service paying estimated taxes online with a credit card best credit cards help rebuild credit suze orman getting rid of credit card debt apply for credit card visa first niagara credit card online login list all types credit cards hsbc premier credit card travel insurance credit card debt how to cut a deal apply credit card citizens bank credit cards fair credit high limit personal credit card processing iphone long term car rental cape town no credit card hsbc credit card application no annual fee
الرئيسية | العربيّة واللغات الأخرى | أثر العربية في اللغات | تأثر اللغة الإسبانية باللغة العربية - فؤاد السائح
 

صفحة شبكة صوت العربية في فيسبوكtwitterقناة شبكة صوت العربية في يوتيوبشبكة صوت العربية في موقع فليكر

تأثر اللغة الإسبانية باللغة العربية - فؤاد السائح طباعة إرسال إلى صديق
تقييم المستخدمين: / 17
سيئجيد 
الكاتب صوت العربية   
الاثنين, 01 سبتمبر 2008 23:20

تأثر اللغة الإسبانية باللغة العربية - فؤاد السائح
انتشار الكلمات العربية إلى اليوم داخل اللغة الإسبانية دليل آخر على عمق التأثير العربي والإسلامي الذي يظل حتى يومنا هذا شاهدا على حضارة أسسها العرب في شبه الجزيرة الإيبيرية.
لقد ثبت للباحثين اللغويين الإسبان أن تأثر اللغة الإسبانية باللغة العربية عميق جدا, بسبب انتشارها الواسع في الأندلس وبعض المقاطعات الإسبانية على مدى ثمانية قرون تقريبا إبان الحكم العربي الذي بدأ مع دخولهم إليها سنة 711م, واستمر حتى بعد خروجهم منها سنة 1492م. ولقد شهد التاريخ أن العرب أسسوا حضارة في شبه الجزيرة الإيبيرية تجلت في انتشار العلوم والفنون والعمران كما في الصناعة والزراعة والهندسة المعمارية إبان تلك القرون الغابرة, مما جعل الأندلس آنذاك مزدهرة ومركز إشعاع في أوربا كلها, ومحجةً لطالبي العلم فيها.

كلنا يعرف أن الفاتح العظيم (طارق بن زياد) كان أول من دخل الأرض الإسبانية مع عدد كبير من الرجال من سكان بلاد المغرب الأصليين صحبوه في حملته المظفرة, وبينهم جنود شاميون انضموا إليه, ولذلك سموا المضيق الذي عبر منه مضيق (جبل طارق) منذ ذلك التاريخ فأصبح: (GIBRALTAR). ونعرف كذلك أن الفتح الإسلامي للأندلس عرف موجتين بعد طارق بن زياد كانت الأولى بقيادة الفاتح (موسى بن نصير) الحجازي المنبت والدمشقي النشأة, وكانت الثانية بقيادة الفاتح (بليح بن بشر) الدمشقي وهذا ما جعل العنصر العربي في إسبانيا كلها, ما عدا المقاطعات الشمالية منها, هو الأقوى لأنه استطاع أن ينشر لغته فيها. إن المهم في هذا الأمر استمرار أثر اللغة العربية في اللغة الإسبانية حتى يومنا هذا بدليل كتاب قيّم نشره في مدريد عالم لغوي, وعضو في مجمع اللغة الإسبانية هو الدكتور (رافائيل لابيسا) تحت عنوان: (تاريخ اللغة الإسبانية). في هذه الدراسة الموثقة يقول المؤرخ (لابيسا) إنه توجد في اللغة الإسبانية حاضرا أربعة آلاف كلمة عربية, بعضها ظلّ على حاله, وأكثرها أصابه التحريف كتابة ولفظا, وهذا يعني أن ربع اللغة الإسبانية واسعة الانتشار في العالم من أصل عربي.

كلمات عربية :
أما السبب في تحريف بعض المفردات العربية, وأسماء المدن والأماكن الجغرافية فيعود إلى الذوق الإسباني أولاً, ثم إلى افتقار اللغة الإسبانية ذات الأصل اللاتيني الى حرف (الضاد) العربي, في حين أنها اقتبست من اللغة العربية أحرفاً غير موجودة في اللغات الأوربية ذات الأصل اللاتيني منها: (الثاء), و(الخاء) على سبيل المثال. كما أكد المؤرخ المذكور أن غالبية الكلمات التي تبتدئ بألف التعريف في اللغة الإسبانية بقيت على حالها فيها, منها مثلاً (الرّز - ARROZ) و(السكر - ACUCAR), و(الناعورة - NORIA) و(الياسمين: JASMIN) والكرز - ALCARAZ) وهو اسم قرية أندلسية, و(القُصَيْر - ALCOCER) وهي كنية إحدى العائلات الإسبانية في عصرنا الحاضر ذات المنبت الأندلسي, و(القلعة - ALCALA), و(المدوّر - ALMODOVAR), فيما أضحت بلدة (المنكّب) الواقعة في جنوب إسبانيا على ساحل البحر الأبيض المتوسط, بالقرب من مدينة ملقة, التي دخل إليها الأمير الأموي الناجي من دمشق عبدالرحمن بن معاوية قادماً من المغرب تُدعى بالإسبانية - (ALMUNECAR), ولقد أقام محافظها في التسعينيات من القرن العشرين تمثالاً ضخماً على شاطئها للأمير عبدالرحمن الداخل اعترافاً بفضله على ازدهار الأندلس, حضره عدد كبير من المستعربين والباحثين والمؤرخين العرب والإسبان والأوربيين.
تتمة لما سبق أن ذكرته عن الأثر العربي العميق في اللسان الإسباني أود أن أشير إلى أن العرب بنوا مدينة صغيرة بالقرب من مدريد أسموها: (مدينة سالم) تُعرف اليوم باسم: (MEDINACELI), كما أن بلدة CALATAYUD الأندلسية أسماها العرب حين بنوها: (قلعة أيوب), والنهر الكبير الذي يمرّ في كل من قرطبة وإشبيلية اسمه بالإسبانية أضحى: (CUADALQUIVIR), وهو مأخوذ من اسمه العربي: (الوادي الكبير).
في حين أن اسم القرية بالعربية كان العرب يدعونه: (الضيعة) فاقتبسه الإسبان منذ ذلك التاريخ القديم إذ يسمون القرية في الأندلس: (ALDEA) كما أن (المعصرة) بقيت تحمل اسمها العربي منذ القدم بالإسبانية فيقولون عنها: (ALMAZARA) وكذلك (الساقية) التي ظلت تدعى بالإسبانية (ACEQVIA).
في حين أن كلمة (حتى) بقيت على حالها في اللغة الإسبانية إذ يقولون عنها: (HASTA), ويقولون عن السوق (ZOCO) وعن (فلان - FULANO).
إننا نعرف أن الإسبان كثيراً ما يردّدون عبارة: (OJALA) في أحاديثهم حتى يومنا الحاضر, فهي عبارة مأخوذة من اللغة العربية أصلها: (إن شاء الله!) ومثلها قولهم المأثور: (ليحفظك الله- RUE DIOS GUARDE) و(بارك الله بالأم التي وضعتك) - BENDITA SEALA MADRE QUE TE PARIO). ويطيب لي أن أضيف إلى ما سبق أن من أطرف ما كتبه المؤرخ الدكتور (رافائيل لابيسا) في دراسته (تأريخ اللغة الإسبانية) قوله: (تعارف العرب على تسمية الفنّي: (ابن الدنيا), واللص: (ابن الليل) فألف الأندلسيون هذه العبارات الرمزية واقتبسوا الفكرة في لغتهم الدارجة فأطلقوا على المتديّن اسم: (ابن الإحسان) وعلى اليتيم: (ابن الحجر) وعلى الإنسان السطحي (ابن يومه)... كما أن كلمة: (HIDALGO) التي تُطلق في العصر الحديث على النبيل المتميّز بالشجاعة والكرم كان أصلها العربي هو: (ابن الخير) وكانت تلفظ وتكتب هكذا: (HIJODALGO).

آيات الفن :
إضافة إلى ما ذكرت أود أن أشير إلى أسماء مدن أندلسية قديمة من أصل لاتيني أو إغريقي قد حرّفها أسلافنا العرب بما يتناسب مع ذوقهم فأطلقوا اسم: (شاطبة) على مدينة أندلسية كانت تُسمى قبل الفتح الإسلامي: (ECIJA) وجعلوها: (JATIVA) كما أن مدينة إشبيلية كانت تسمى قبل الفتح: (HISPALIA) فأضحى اسمها بعده: (SEVILLA), وهنالك مدينة كبيرة كانت تعرف باسم: (CASARAUGUSTA) فأسماها العرب: (سرقسطة) وأضحت بالإسبانية: SARAGOSTA).
ولا بد من ذكر اسم عاصمة الدولة الأموية بالأندلس الروماني قديماً الذي كان (CORTEB) فأضحى اسمها بالعربية: (قرطبة) وبالإسبانية: (CORDOBA). وفي الأندلس كانت توجد مدينة (الزهراء) التي بناها بالقرب من قرطبة في القرن العاشر إبان حكمه الخليفة عبدالرحمن الناصر إكراماً لحبيبته (الزهراء), وجعلها آية فريدة من آيات الفن المعماري والزخارف والحدائق. لقد أسماها الإسبان: (AZAHARA) ولكنها انقرضت تقريباً إبان ثورة البربر بعد سقوط الحكم الأموي, وها هي تُبعث بعض آثارها الخيالية في يومنا الحاضر على أيدي علماء وفنانين مهرة إذ بدأت الأعمال فيها منذ حوالي نصف قرن من الزمن.
أعتقد أن اسم العاصمة الإسبانية (مدريد) يستحق أن نبحث عن أصله وعن تاريخ تشييدها لأن الذي حطّ رحاله في بقعتها الغنية بالمياه كان أميراً أموياً اسمه محمد بن عبدالرحمن بن الحكم بن هشام بن عبدالرحمن الأول, الداخل, في بداية القرن الحادي عشر الميلادي, ويؤكد المؤرخون الإسبان والعرب, ومنهم الباحث المشهور الدكتور محمد علي مكي في كتابه: (مدريد العربية) أن الأمير محمد هو الذي بنى في موقعها قصراً له, ومسجداً, وشيّدها مُطْلِقا عليها اسمها الحالي الذي اتخذه من كلمة: (مجرى) مضافاً إليها حرفا: (IT أي إيط), اللاتينيين فكان (مجريط), ثم أضحى (مدريد). لقد أمّها الناس في عهده وبنوا فيها أسواقاً وحمامات ومساكن حتى أضحت في العصور اللاحقة مدينة مزدهرة, وعاصمة لإسبانيا منذ سنة (1561م). أي منذ أن اتخذها الملوك الكاثوليك مقراً لهم بعد خروج العرب من بلادهم بمدة طويلة, وعندما بنوا فيها القصر الملكي أسموه (قصر الشرق - PALACIO DE ORIENTE) لأنهم شيّدوه على أنقاض قصر الأمير محمد الأموي, باني المدينة, ولايزال السفراء المعتمدون في إسبانيا يقدمون أوراق اعتمادهم في احتفال تقيمه المملكة الإسبانية حاضرا, مثلما كانوا يفعلون في أيام الحكم الملكي السابق وحتى في الحقبة التي حكم إسبانيا فيها الجنرال فرانكو رئيساً للدولة.

الموريسكيون :
إننا نعرف أن الإسبان استرجعوا طليطلة سنة 1085م, أعني الملوك الكاثوليك فيها, ثم سرقسطة وقرطبة في القرن الثاني عشر, وإشبيلية في القرن الثالث عشر, وملقة وغرناطة أخيرا سنة 1492 في أواخر القرن الخامس عشر, ولكن الأثر العربي في اللغة الإسبانية استمرّ واضحا حتى القرن السابع عشر حيث عُرف الذين كانوا يتداولونها باسم: (موريسكيين - MORISCOS) إلى أن اندمجوا بالإسبان وبلغتهم الأصلية ودينهم, ما عدا فريقاً كبيراً منهم هاجر إلى المغرب.
ثم ظهر في إسبانيا فنٌ عظيم في الهندسة والصناعات اليدوية عُرف باسم: (المدجّن - MUDEJAR) مما يدل على أن الأثر العربي لم يزل كلياً بزوالهم, أما (المستعربون - MOZARABES) من الإسبان فهم الذين تأثروا باللغة والثقافة العربيتين وأسهموا مع الموريسكيين والمدجنين في تغذية لغة إسبانيا, لاتينية الأصل, باللغة العربية, وفي ترجمة آثارها الأدبية والفلسفية والعلمية مساهمةً فعالة. إن الدليل على عمق تأثيرهم هو استعانة الإسبان المتنفّذين بهم بعد سقوط طليطلة عندما أسّس رئيس الأساقفة فيها: (دون رايموندو DON RAIMUNDO) مدرسة الترجمة المشهورة فيها سنة 1125م. كما أن الملك ألفونسو العاشر الملقب بـ(العالم) الذي حكمها من سنة 1252 حتى سنة 1284م جمع في بلاطه العديد من الموريسكيين والمدجّنين الذين كان بينهم مستشاره الخاص المدعو: ألونسو دل كاستيللو ALONSO DEL CASTILLO) وعيّنه كبير التراجمة للآثار العربية اللغوية والأدبية والعلمية في قصره. هذا الشرح هو ما يقودنا إلى الاعتراف بفضل الموريسكيين والمدجنين على المحافظة في إسبانيا على كل ما كان للعرب فيها من منجزات مهمة إبان حكمهم لها, ومنها لغتهم. كما أن طبقة من هؤلاء قد تعوّدت آنذاك, وفي فترة وجيزة, تدوين الأبحاث والمؤلفات والرسائل باللغة الإسبانية متضمنة كلمات عربية فنشأت بسببها ثقافة سُميت: (الأعجمية - ALJAMIADA) ولكنها لم تعمّر طويلاً لانصهار أصحابها بالبوتقة الإسبانية.
وقبل أن أختم هذه المقالة أرى من الضروري العودة إلى كتاب المؤرخ اللغوي: (رافائيل لابيسا) فأشير إلى أنه ذكر فيه إعجاب سكان إسبانيا في المقاطعات الشمالية غير الأندلسيين بالتقاليد العربية وحتى في الأزياء, وتأثرهم في القرون الوسيطة بالزجل والموشح الذي ظهر جليّا في الشعر الغنائي الشعبي, كما في الشعر الملحمي البطولي كأنشودة (رولان), ورائعة سيرفانتيث: دون كيشوت, وأنشودة (السيد - POEMA DE MIO CID) التي تحمل اسم مؤلفها: (السيد) الذي كان من المستعربين في مدينة أندلسية.

حنين دائم :
إن ما سبق في هذا البحث الموثق يؤكد لنا أهمية الأثر العربي في اللغة الإسبانية والعديد من التقاليد في حواضر الأندلس خاصة, ذلك الأمر الذي لايزال جليّا حتى في أسماء العديد من الأسر العريقة حاليا كـ(بني أمية - BNIHUMEYA) و(بني BENIGOMEZ), و(أبو المنذر ABOLMONZER) وكذلك (المُظفر - ALMOZAFAR)... إلخ.. كما هو جلي في وجوه العديد من الجميلات الأندلسيات والرجال والأطفال, ولاسيما في تكريمهم الضيوف, والسياح على مختلف عروقهم, وفي كرمهم الأصيل. وليس غريباً بعدما سبق أن أشرت إليه أن يشعر العربي في إسبانيا, أعني في مقاطعات الأندلس ومدنها الداخلية والساحلية وقراها بأنه بين أقرباء له, لا غرباء عنه, على الرغم من البعد الزمني على وجود أسلافنا العرب في أرضه الطيبة وخروجهم منها, كما أن الأندلسيين أنفسهم يبادلوننا الشعور ذاته عندما يزورون بلادنا العربية
------------
منتديات واتا الحضارية

 
Joomla Templates and Joomla Extensions by JoomlaVision.Com
Joomla Templates by Joomlashack