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الرئيسية | العربيّة واللغات الأخرى | أثر العربية في اللغات | تأثر اللغة الإسبانية باللغة العربية - فؤاد السائح
 

صفحة شبكة صوت العربية في فيسبوكtwitterقناة شبكة صوت العربية في يوتيوبشبكة صوت العربية في موقع فليكر

تأثر اللغة الإسبانية باللغة العربية - فؤاد السائح طباعة إرسال إلى صديق
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الاثنين, 01 سبتمبر 2008 23:20

تأثر اللغة الإسبانية باللغة العربية - فؤاد السائح
انتشار الكلمات العربية إلى اليوم داخل اللغة الإسبانية دليل آخر على عمق التأثير العربي والإسلامي الذي يظل حتى يومنا هذا شاهدا على حضارة أسسها العرب في شبه الجزيرة الإيبيرية.
لقد ثبت للباحثين اللغويين الإسبان أن تأثر اللغة الإسبانية باللغة العربية عميق جدا, بسبب انتشارها الواسع في الأندلس وبعض المقاطعات الإسبانية على مدى ثمانية قرون تقريبا إبان الحكم العربي الذي بدأ مع دخولهم إليها سنة 711م, واستمر حتى بعد خروجهم منها سنة 1492م. ولقد شهد التاريخ أن العرب أسسوا حضارة في شبه الجزيرة الإيبيرية تجلت في انتشار العلوم والفنون والعمران كما في الصناعة والزراعة والهندسة المعمارية إبان تلك القرون الغابرة, مما جعل الأندلس آنذاك مزدهرة ومركز إشعاع في أوربا كلها, ومحجةً لطالبي العلم فيها.

كلنا يعرف أن الفاتح العظيم (طارق بن زياد) كان أول من دخل الأرض الإسبانية مع عدد كبير من الرجال من سكان بلاد المغرب الأصليين صحبوه في حملته المظفرة, وبينهم جنود شاميون انضموا إليه, ولذلك سموا المضيق الذي عبر منه مضيق (جبل طارق) منذ ذلك التاريخ فأصبح: (GIBRALTAR). ونعرف كذلك أن الفتح الإسلامي للأندلس عرف موجتين بعد طارق بن زياد كانت الأولى بقيادة الفاتح (موسى بن نصير) الحجازي المنبت والدمشقي النشأة, وكانت الثانية بقيادة الفاتح (بليح بن بشر) الدمشقي وهذا ما جعل العنصر العربي في إسبانيا كلها, ما عدا المقاطعات الشمالية منها, هو الأقوى لأنه استطاع أن ينشر لغته فيها. إن المهم في هذا الأمر استمرار أثر اللغة العربية في اللغة الإسبانية حتى يومنا هذا بدليل كتاب قيّم نشره في مدريد عالم لغوي, وعضو في مجمع اللغة الإسبانية هو الدكتور (رافائيل لابيسا) تحت عنوان: (تاريخ اللغة الإسبانية). في هذه الدراسة الموثقة يقول المؤرخ (لابيسا) إنه توجد في اللغة الإسبانية حاضرا أربعة آلاف كلمة عربية, بعضها ظلّ على حاله, وأكثرها أصابه التحريف كتابة ولفظا, وهذا يعني أن ربع اللغة الإسبانية واسعة الانتشار في العالم من أصل عربي.

كلمات عربية :
أما السبب في تحريف بعض المفردات العربية, وأسماء المدن والأماكن الجغرافية فيعود إلى الذوق الإسباني أولاً, ثم إلى افتقار اللغة الإسبانية ذات الأصل اللاتيني الى حرف (الضاد) العربي, في حين أنها اقتبست من اللغة العربية أحرفاً غير موجودة في اللغات الأوربية ذات الأصل اللاتيني منها: (الثاء), و(الخاء) على سبيل المثال. كما أكد المؤرخ المذكور أن غالبية الكلمات التي تبتدئ بألف التعريف في اللغة الإسبانية بقيت على حالها فيها, منها مثلاً (الرّز - ARROZ) و(السكر - ACUCAR), و(الناعورة - NORIA) و(الياسمين: JASMIN) والكرز - ALCARAZ) وهو اسم قرية أندلسية, و(القُصَيْر - ALCOCER) وهي كنية إحدى العائلات الإسبانية في عصرنا الحاضر ذات المنبت الأندلسي, و(القلعة - ALCALA), و(المدوّر - ALMODOVAR), فيما أضحت بلدة (المنكّب) الواقعة في جنوب إسبانيا على ساحل البحر الأبيض المتوسط, بالقرب من مدينة ملقة, التي دخل إليها الأمير الأموي الناجي من دمشق عبدالرحمن بن معاوية قادماً من المغرب تُدعى بالإسبانية - (ALMUNECAR), ولقد أقام محافظها في التسعينيات من القرن العشرين تمثالاً ضخماً على شاطئها للأمير عبدالرحمن الداخل اعترافاً بفضله على ازدهار الأندلس, حضره عدد كبير من المستعربين والباحثين والمؤرخين العرب والإسبان والأوربيين.
تتمة لما سبق أن ذكرته عن الأثر العربي العميق في اللسان الإسباني أود أن أشير إلى أن العرب بنوا مدينة صغيرة بالقرب من مدريد أسموها: (مدينة سالم) تُعرف اليوم باسم: (MEDINACELI), كما أن بلدة CALATAYUD الأندلسية أسماها العرب حين بنوها: (قلعة أيوب), والنهر الكبير الذي يمرّ في كل من قرطبة وإشبيلية اسمه بالإسبانية أضحى: (CUADALQUIVIR), وهو مأخوذ من اسمه العربي: (الوادي الكبير).
في حين أن اسم القرية بالعربية كان العرب يدعونه: (الضيعة) فاقتبسه الإسبان منذ ذلك التاريخ القديم إذ يسمون القرية في الأندلس: (ALDEA) كما أن (المعصرة) بقيت تحمل اسمها العربي منذ القدم بالإسبانية فيقولون عنها: (ALMAZARA) وكذلك (الساقية) التي ظلت تدعى بالإسبانية (ACEQVIA).
في حين أن كلمة (حتى) بقيت على حالها في اللغة الإسبانية إذ يقولون عنها: (HASTA), ويقولون عن السوق (ZOCO) وعن (فلان - FULANO).
إننا نعرف أن الإسبان كثيراً ما يردّدون عبارة: (OJALA) في أحاديثهم حتى يومنا الحاضر, فهي عبارة مأخوذة من اللغة العربية أصلها: (إن شاء الله!) ومثلها قولهم المأثور: (ليحفظك الله- RUE DIOS GUARDE) و(بارك الله بالأم التي وضعتك) - BENDITA SEALA MADRE QUE TE PARIO). ويطيب لي أن أضيف إلى ما سبق أن من أطرف ما كتبه المؤرخ الدكتور (رافائيل لابيسا) في دراسته (تأريخ اللغة الإسبانية) قوله: (تعارف العرب على تسمية الفنّي: (ابن الدنيا), واللص: (ابن الليل) فألف الأندلسيون هذه العبارات الرمزية واقتبسوا الفكرة في لغتهم الدارجة فأطلقوا على المتديّن اسم: (ابن الإحسان) وعلى اليتيم: (ابن الحجر) وعلى الإنسان السطحي (ابن يومه)... كما أن كلمة: (HIDALGO) التي تُطلق في العصر الحديث على النبيل المتميّز بالشجاعة والكرم كان أصلها العربي هو: (ابن الخير) وكانت تلفظ وتكتب هكذا: (HIJODALGO).

آيات الفن :
إضافة إلى ما ذكرت أود أن أشير إلى أسماء مدن أندلسية قديمة من أصل لاتيني أو إغريقي قد حرّفها أسلافنا العرب بما يتناسب مع ذوقهم فأطلقوا اسم: (شاطبة) على مدينة أندلسية كانت تُسمى قبل الفتح الإسلامي: (ECIJA) وجعلوها: (JATIVA) كما أن مدينة إشبيلية كانت تسمى قبل الفتح: (HISPALIA) فأضحى اسمها بعده: (SEVILLA), وهنالك مدينة كبيرة كانت تعرف باسم: (CASARAUGUSTA) فأسماها العرب: (سرقسطة) وأضحت بالإسبانية: SARAGOSTA).
ولا بد من ذكر اسم عاصمة الدولة الأموية بالأندلس الروماني قديماً الذي كان (CORTEB) فأضحى اسمها بالعربية: (قرطبة) وبالإسبانية: (CORDOBA). وفي الأندلس كانت توجد مدينة (الزهراء) التي بناها بالقرب من قرطبة في القرن العاشر إبان حكمه الخليفة عبدالرحمن الناصر إكراماً لحبيبته (الزهراء), وجعلها آية فريدة من آيات الفن المعماري والزخارف والحدائق. لقد أسماها الإسبان: (AZAHARA) ولكنها انقرضت تقريباً إبان ثورة البربر بعد سقوط الحكم الأموي, وها هي تُبعث بعض آثارها الخيالية في يومنا الحاضر على أيدي علماء وفنانين مهرة إذ بدأت الأعمال فيها منذ حوالي نصف قرن من الزمن.
أعتقد أن اسم العاصمة الإسبانية (مدريد) يستحق أن نبحث عن أصله وعن تاريخ تشييدها لأن الذي حطّ رحاله في بقعتها الغنية بالمياه كان أميراً أموياً اسمه محمد بن عبدالرحمن بن الحكم بن هشام بن عبدالرحمن الأول, الداخل, في بداية القرن الحادي عشر الميلادي, ويؤكد المؤرخون الإسبان والعرب, ومنهم الباحث المشهور الدكتور محمد علي مكي في كتابه: (مدريد العربية) أن الأمير محمد هو الذي بنى في موقعها قصراً له, ومسجداً, وشيّدها مُطْلِقا عليها اسمها الحالي الذي اتخذه من كلمة: (مجرى) مضافاً إليها حرفا: (IT أي إيط), اللاتينيين فكان (مجريط), ثم أضحى (مدريد). لقد أمّها الناس في عهده وبنوا فيها أسواقاً وحمامات ومساكن حتى أضحت في العصور اللاحقة مدينة مزدهرة, وعاصمة لإسبانيا منذ سنة (1561م). أي منذ أن اتخذها الملوك الكاثوليك مقراً لهم بعد خروج العرب من بلادهم بمدة طويلة, وعندما بنوا فيها القصر الملكي أسموه (قصر الشرق - PALACIO DE ORIENTE) لأنهم شيّدوه على أنقاض قصر الأمير محمد الأموي, باني المدينة, ولايزال السفراء المعتمدون في إسبانيا يقدمون أوراق اعتمادهم في احتفال تقيمه المملكة الإسبانية حاضرا, مثلما كانوا يفعلون في أيام الحكم الملكي السابق وحتى في الحقبة التي حكم إسبانيا فيها الجنرال فرانكو رئيساً للدولة.

الموريسكيون :
إننا نعرف أن الإسبان استرجعوا طليطلة سنة 1085م, أعني الملوك الكاثوليك فيها, ثم سرقسطة وقرطبة في القرن الثاني عشر, وإشبيلية في القرن الثالث عشر, وملقة وغرناطة أخيرا سنة 1492 في أواخر القرن الخامس عشر, ولكن الأثر العربي في اللغة الإسبانية استمرّ واضحا حتى القرن السابع عشر حيث عُرف الذين كانوا يتداولونها باسم: (موريسكيين - MORISCOS) إلى أن اندمجوا بالإسبان وبلغتهم الأصلية ودينهم, ما عدا فريقاً كبيراً منهم هاجر إلى المغرب.
ثم ظهر في إسبانيا فنٌ عظيم في الهندسة والصناعات اليدوية عُرف باسم: (المدجّن - MUDEJAR) مما يدل على أن الأثر العربي لم يزل كلياً بزوالهم, أما (المستعربون - MOZARABES) من الإسبان فهم الذين تأثروا باللغة والثقافة العربيتين وأسهموا مع الموريسكيين والمدجنين في تغذية لغة إسبانيا, لاتينية الأصل, باللغة العربية, وفي ترجمة آثارها الأدبية والفلسفية والعلمية مساهمةً فعالة. إن الدليل على عمق تأثيرهم هو استعانة الإسبان المتنفّذين بهم بعد سقوط طليطلة عندما أسّس رئيس الأساقفة فيها: (دون رايموندو DON RAIMUNDO) مدرسة الترجمة المشهورة فيها سنة 1125م. كما أن الملك ألفونسو العاشر الملقب بـ(العالم) الذي حكمها من سنة 1252 حتى سنة 1284م جمع في بلاطه العديد من الموريسكيين والمدجّنين الذين كان بينهم مستشاره الخاص المدعو: ألونسو دل كاستيللو ALONSO DEL CASTILLO) وعيّنه كبير التراجمة للآثار العربية اللغوية والأدبية والعلمية في قصره. هذا الشرح هو ما يقودنا إلى الاعتراف بفضل الموريسكيين والمدجنين على المحافظة في إسبانيا على كل ما كان للعرب فيها من منجزات مهمة إبان حكمهم لها, ومنها لغتهم. كما أن طبقة من هؤلاء قد تعوّدت آنذاك, وفي فترة وجيزة, تدوين الأبحاث والمؤلفات والرسائل باللغة الإسبانية متضمنة كلمات عربية فنشأت بسببها ثقافة سُميت: (الأعجمية - ALJAMIADA) ولكنها لم تعمّر طويلاً لانصهار أصحابها بالبوتقة الإسبانية.
وقبل أن أختم هذه المقالة أرى من الضروري العودة إلى كتاب المؤرخ اللغوي: (رافائيل لابيسا) فأشير إلى أنه ذكر فيه إعجاب سكان إسبانيا في المقاطعات الشمالية غير الأندلسيين بالتقاليد العربية وحتى في الأزياء, وتأثرهم في القرون الوسيطة بالزجل والموشح الذي ظهر جليّا في الشعر الغنائي الشعبي, كما في الشعر الملحمي البطولي كأنشودة (رولان), ورائعة سيرفانتيث: دون كيشوت, وأنشودة (السيد - POEMA DE MIO CID) التي تحمل اسم مؤلفها: (السيد) الذي كان من المستعربين في مدينة أندلسية.

حنين دائم :
إن ما سبق في هذا البحث الموثق يؤكد لنا أهمية الأثر العربي في اللغة الإسبانية والعديد من التقاليد في حواضر الأندلس خاصة, ذلك الأمر الذي لايزال جليّا حتى في أسماء العديد من الأسر العريقة حاليا كـ(بني أمية - BNIHUMEYA) و(بني BENIGOMEZ), و(أبو المنذر ABOLMONZER) وكذلك (المُظفر - ALMOZAFAR)... إلخ.. كما هو جلي في وجوه العديد من الجميلات الأندلسيات والرجال والأطفال, ولاسيما في تكريمهم الضيوف, والسياح على مختلف عروقهم, وفي كرمهم الأصيل. وليس غريباً بعدما سبق أن أشرت إليه أن يشعر العربي في إسبانيا, أعني في مقاطعات الأندلس ومدنها الداخلية والساحلية وقراها بأنه بين أقرباء له, لا غرباء عنه, على الرغم من البعد الزمني على وجود أسلافنا العرب في أرضه الطيبة وخروجهم منها, كما أن الأندلسيين أنفسهم يبادلوننا الشعور ذاته عندما يزورون بلادنا العربية
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