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الرئيسية | العربيّة واللغات الأخرى | دراساتٌ لغويّةٌ مقارنة | ظاهرة التذكير والتأنيث بين العربية والإنجليزية - ابتهال محمد علي البار
 

صفحة شبكة صوت العربية في فيسبوكtwitterقناة شبكة صوت العربية في يوتيوبشبكة صوت العربية في موقع فليكر

ظاهرة التذكير والتأنيث بين العربية والإنجليزية - ابتهال محمد علي البار طباعة إرسال إلى صديق
تقييم المستخدمين: / 6
سيئجيد 
الكاتب صوت العربية   
الاثنين, 28 يوليو 2008 17:04

ابتهال محمد علي البار ( محاضرة بجامعة الملك عبد العزيز- قسم اللغة العربية )

من آيات الله العجيبة في هذا الكون أن خلق من كل زوجين اثنين كما قال تعالى : " وأنه خلق الزوجين الذكر والأنثى " فكثير من العوالم تقوم على التزاوج بين الجنسين ليس في عالم الإنسان فحسب بل في عالم الحيوان والنبات بل حتى بين الذرَّات الموجبة والسالبة .

ولا شك أن هذا الاختلاف في الجنس يستلزم اختلاف الألفاظ التي تطلق على كل من الذكر والأنثى، وهي ظاهرة جليَّة في كل لغات العالم لكننا ها هنا سنركِّز عليها في لغتنا العربية مع مقارنة بسيطة باللغة الانجليزية .
ظاهرة التذكير والتأنيث في العربية :
اعتنى الباحثون قديمًا وحديثًا بمسألة التذكير والتأنيث عناية تفوق عنايتهم بأي ظاهرة لغوية، فقلما نجد لغويًا من القدامى إلا وأفرد لهذه المسألة كتابًا خاصًّا أو رسالة خاصة، كذلك اهتم الباحثون بهذه المسألة فحقَّقوا الكتب الخاصة بها .
والتذكير والتأنيث من القضايا الشائكة التي يكثر فيها الخطأ خصوصًا من الكتاب، فإذا استثنينا المؤنث الحقيقي والمذكر الحقيقي فإننا لا نجد صلة بين الاسم وجنسه، وقد ترتَّب عن فقدان هذه الصلة عدَّة أمور منها :أن الكلمة قد تكون مذكرة عند بعض القبائل ومؤنثة عند بعضها الآخر، فمثلاً كلمة "الإبهام" مؤنثة إلاّ عند بني أسد، وليس هذا الإشكال بين القبائل العربية فحسب بل إن انعدام الصلة بين الاسم وجنسه أدَّى إلى اختلاف التذكير والتأنيث بين اللغات، "فالخمر" مثلاً في العربية مؤنث وهي مذكر في الألمانية، "والقمر" مذكر في العربية ومؤنث في الفرنسية وكثيرًا ما يؤدي ذلك لأخطاء في الترجمة . ومما يزيد الأمر تعقيدًا أن علامات التأنيث الثلاثة ( الألف الممدودة، الألف المقصورة، تاء التأنيث أو هاء التأنيث ) قد نجدها في المذكر[1] .
تعريف التذكير والتأنيث من الناحية اللغوية :
التذكير في اللغة مأخوذ من الشدة، يقال: رجل ذكر  أي: قوي شجاع أبيّ، ومطر ذكر: وابل شديد، وقولٌ ذكر: صُلبٌ متين.[2]
والتأنيث مأخوذ من اللين، يُقال: تأنَّث في الأمر: لان ولم يتشدَّد، والأنيث:غير الصُّلب، ومكانٌ أنيث: سهل مِنْبات. [3]
وإذا أردنا أن نُقسم الجنس في اللغة نجده على النحو التالي :
alt 1) حقيقي                                       2) مجازي
مذكر   مؤنث                                    مذكر   مؤنث
فالمذكر هو ما يصّح أن تُشير إليه بقولك "هذا" وهو قسمان: حقيقي ومجازي .
الأول : ما يدل على ذَكر من الناس أو الحيوان ، مثل: "رجل، أسد".[4] أو كما قال ابن يعيش: " ما كان للمذكر منه فرجٌ خلاف فرج الأنثى، كالرجل ، والمرأة"[5]
والنوع الثاني هو المجازي: وهو ما يُعامل معاملة الذكر وليس منه، مثل:"ليل، بدر، قمر" .
أما المؤنث: فهو ما يصح أن تشير إليه بقولك "هذه" .[6]
والمؤنث أيضًا نوعان :
1- المؤنث الحقيقي وهو : ما يقابله ذكرٌ مِنْ كل ذي روح،[7] ومعيار العلماء في هذا الصنف واضح ومنضبط، لأن ذلك مرتبط بالجانب المادي . وهو يُعرف قياسًا وسماعًا كانت فيه علامة أو لم تكن، مثل "سعاد" "زينب" "امرأة" "فاضلة" والعاري من العلامة يعرف تأنيثه بعدة أمور منها الاستدلال بالإشارة إلى مسمَّاه في القرب بـ ( ذي ) وفي البعد بـ ( تلك ) أو بالضمير العائد[8] .
2- مجازي وهو : ما عاملته العرب معاملة المؤنثات الحقيقية مثل : "شمس" "حرب" "نار" والمدار في هذا على النقل ، ويستدل على ذلك بعدة أمور منها :الضمير العائد عليه، نحو قوله تعالى: ﴿النار وعدها الله الذين كفروا ﴾ (72:الحج)، وقوله تعالى: ﴿ حتى تضع الحرب أوزارها﴾[9] ( 4: محمد) . ولا ُمـمَيِّز لهذا النوع ولا ضابط له، لأنه لا يدل على ذات حقيقية أو محسوسة . وأُلحق بالمؤنث على سبيل المجاز، فهو موقوف على الوضع والاصطلاح .وقد أشكل على اللغويين والنحويين فأفردوا له الرسائل، رغبة في ضبطه وتقييده حتى يظن الباحث أن مسألة التذكير والتأنيث قد خُصِّصت للمجازي، فالمؤنث الحقيقي معلوم من اللغة بالضرورة[10] .
ينقسم المؤنث باعتبار لفظه إلى ثلاثة أنواع :
1- المؤنث اللفظي .
2- المؤنث المعنوي .
3- المؤنث اللفظي المعنوي .
فالمؤنث اللفظي : ما كان علما لمذكّر ، وفيه علامة تأنيث، مثل : " زكرياء، طلحة، كِنانة"
والمؤنث المعنوي : ما خلا من العلامة وكان علمًا لمؤنث مثل : "زينب، أم كلثوم" .
والمؤنث اللفظي المعنوي : ما كان علمًا لمؤنث،  وفيه علامة تأنيث مثل : "صفية" "خنساء، سُعدى"[11] .
علامات التأنيث :
على قول الفراء خمس عشرة علامة، ثمان منها في الأسماء : الهاء، الألف الممدودة، المقصورة، تاء الجمع في نحو "الهندات"، الكسرة في "أنتِ"، النون في "أنتنَّ" و"هنَّ" والتاء في "أخت" و"بنت" والياء في "هذي" .
وأربع في الأفعال : التاء الساكنة في مثل : "قامت" والياء في "تفعلين" والكسرة في "قمت" والنون في "فعلن" .
وثلاث في الأدوات : التاء في "ربّة" و"ثمّة" و"لات" والتاء في "هيهات" والهاء والألف في نحو "إنها هند" .
وأشهر علامات التأنيث في الأسماء : التاء وألف التأنيث المقصورة والممدودة .[12]
ما يستوي فيه التذكير والتأنيث :
هناك خمسة أوزان يستوي فيها المذكر والمؤنث وهي :
- "فعيل" بمعنى مفعول مثل:  "كف خضيب" .
- "فعول" بمعنى فاعل نحو: " صبور، وشكور" .
- "مِِـِِفعـال"  نحو : " مِـهذار، مِكْسال" .
- "مِـفعيل" نحو :" مِعطير، و مِِـئشير من الأَشَر وهو الكِبر" .
- "مِـفعل" نحو: " ِمـغْشم" .[13]
تأنيث الفعل :
للفعل ثلاث حالات من حيث التذكير والتأنيث وهي :
1- الوجوب .
2- الجواز .
3- الامتناع .
إذا كان الفاعل مؤنثًا أُنِّثَ فعله بتاء ساكنة في آخر الماضي جامدًا كان الفعل أو متصرفًا، تامًّا أو ناقصًا، وبتاء المضارعة في أول المضارع.
ويجب هذا التأنيث في ثلاث مسائل:
1- أن يكون الفاعل ضميرًا متصلاً يعود على مؤنث حقيقي، أو مجازي، مثل:" فاطمة تعلمت  أو تتعلَّم " والمجازي نحو:" الشجرة أثمرت أو تثمر ".
2- أن يكون الفاعل ظاهرًا حقيقي التأنيث ، مفردًا أو مثنى أو جمع مؤنث نحو ، قوله تعالى: ﴿إذ قالت امرأة عمران﴾( 35:آل عمران)،  ونحو: " جاءت البنتان " " أقبلت المسلمات ".
3- أن يكون ضمير جمع تكسير لمذكّر غير عاقل، نحو: "الأيام بك ابتهجت، أو ابتهجن " أو ضمير يعود على جمع مؤنث سالم ،أو جمع تكسير لمؤنث نحو:" الهندات أو الهنود فرحت ، أو فرحْن".
ويجوز التأنيث في أربعة مواضع:
1-أن يكون الفاعل اسمًا ظاهرًا مجازي التأنيث نحو: " أثمر الشجرة، أثمرت الشجرة" أو حقيقي التأنيث وفصل من عامله بغير إلاّ مثل: سافر أو سافرت اليوم فاطمة. كقول الشاعر:
إنَّ امرءاً غرّه منكُنَّ واحدةٌ            بعدي و بَعدكِ في الدنيا لمغرور
2-أن يكون جمع تكسير لمذكر، مثل " الرجال" أو لمؤنث مثل " الهنود، أو جمع مؤنث سالم ، مثل" الهندات" نحو : " جاءت أو جاء الغلمان أو الجواري" ، و " حضرت أو حضر الهندات" فإثبات التاء لتأوّله بالجماعة، وحذفها لتأوّله بالجمع.
3- أن يكون ضمير جمع مكسّر عاقل نحو:" الكتائب حضرت أو حضروا".
4-أن يكون الفعل من باب "نعم" والفاعل مفردا مؤنثًا حقيقيا ظاهرًا نحو:" نعم أو نعمت المرأة هند"، وإنما جاز ذلك لأن الفاعل مقصودٌ به استغراق الجنس ، فعومل معاملة جمع التكسير في جواز إثبات التاء، وحذفها.[14]
ويمتنع التأنيث في ثلاث صور:
1- أن يكون الفاعل مفصولاً بإلاّ نحو:" ما أقبل إلا فاطمة".
2- لأن يكون مذكرًا معنى فقط أو معنى ولفظًا ظاهرًا أو ضميرًا نحو:" اجتهد طلحة وعليٌّ ساعده".
3- أن يكون جمع مذكر سالم ، نحو:﴿ قد أفلح المؤمنون﴾ ( 1: المؤمنون)[15].
المنع من الصرف في المؤنث:
" يلاحظ نحويًّا أن كل ما يتصل بالأنثى بخاصة من أسماء فإنها لاتصرف. ومعنى الصرف في اللغة العربية التنوين، فالممنوع من الصرف هو الممنوع من التنوين، ويقرن بالمنع من الصرف عدم الكسر".
ويمكن تلخيص الممنوع من الصرف المتعلق بالمؤنث فيما يلي:
1-كل ما أُطلق على الإناث من أعلام، مثل العلم المؤنث لفظيًّا أو معنويًّا كـ " نجلاء وسحر "أو ما كان منقولاً من ذكر كأن تسمَّى امرأة " جلال أو قمر".
2- الصفات الخاصة بالأنثى وبها علامة تأنيث نحو: عطشى، سكرى، حمراء".
3- المشبه بالأنثى، فجموع التكسير مختومة بألف ممدودة فتمنع من الصرف لشبهها بالمؤنث المختوم بألف ممدودة[16].
التذكير والتأنيث في اللغة الإنجليزية:
الاسم في الإنجليزية من حيث الجنس أربعة أنواع وهي:
- المذكر: وهو ما دلّ على ذكر مثل:
Boy-Brother
- المؤنث: وهو ما يدلُّ على مؤنث، مثل:
Girl-Sister
- الاسم المشترك بين المذكر والمؤنث، مثل:
Child-Pupil
- الاسم المحايد، مثل:
Book-Pencil
طرق التأنيث في الإنجليزية:
1- بتغيير نهاية الكلمة:

شاعرة : Poetess                    شاعر :Poet

يهودية : Jewess                       يهودي : Jew

ممثلة : Actress                      ممثل : Actor

2- بإضافة كلمة مؤنثة:

ابنة عم         Girl Cousin           ابن عم Boy Cousin

جدَّة            Grand Mother         جدّ     Grand Father

صديقة         Girl Friend           صديق  Boy Friend3-

3- بتغيير الكلمة :

بنت            Girl               ولد      Boy
زوجة          Wife            زوج     Husband
امرأة           Woman       رجل [17]Man
بمقارنة هذه الظاهرة في الإنجليزية والعربية يتضح ما يلي :
1- دقة التقسيم والتصنيف في العربية، إذ لا نجد ما يسمّى بالجنس المحايد كما هو الحال في الإنجليزية، كما لا توجد مفردات يستوي فيها التذكير والتأنيث إلا بعض الأوزان المحدودة والمحصورة في صيغ معدودة، ولعل ذلك يكشف عن أهمية التصنيف الجنسي لدى العربي الذي تحتّم عليه حياته الاجتماعية وموروثاته الفكرية وعاداته وتقاليده القبلية أن يحدّد بدقّة جنس كل مفردة وكلمة بل حتى كل عضو من أعضاء جسده.
2- غزارة طرق التأنيث في العربية، فمنها ما له علاقة بالأفعال ومنها ما له علاقة بالأسماء وبالحروف، مما يجعل تعلُّم علامات التأنيث عملية مربكة للغاية لاسيّما لغير الناطقين بالعربية بخلاف الإنجليزية.
3- ظاهرة تأنيث الفعل في اللغة العربية من الظواهر التي تميّز لغتنا، وتكمن أهميتها في أنها تسهّل كثيرًا معرفة الجنس بمجرد قراءة الفعل ولو كان بمعزل عن السياق.
فمثلاً: الفعل: " تأكل " يدلّ على مؤنث وليس الأمر كذلك في She eat.
4- ظاهرة الممنوع من الصرف التي تميّزت بها العربية تدلّ على العقلية والنفسية العربية التي أرادت تمييز هذه الكلمات بالذات لما لها من خصوصية عند العربي، فكان لا بد لها أن توسم بعلامة لتميّزها عمّا جاورها من الكلمات. ولا شك أن هذه الظاهرة ليست موجودة في الإنجليزية لعدم وجود نظام الإعراب بجملته.
5- امتداد ظاهرة التذكير والتأنيث من المفرد إلى المثنى والجمع، في العربية بخلاف اللغة الانجليزية.

-----------------------------------

المراجع
1- التأنيث في اللغة العربية ، د. إبراهيم بركات ، دار الوفاء ، المنصورة 1988م .
2- جامع الدروس العربية ، مصطفى الغلاييني، المكتبة العصرية ، بيروت 1995م .
3- شرح ابن عقيل ، ابن عقيل، تحقيق : محيي الدين عبد الحميد، المكتبة العصرية، بيروت، 1995
4- شرح المفصَّل ، ابن يعيش ، عالم الكتب ، بيروت .
5- قواعد اللغة الإنجليزية ، جوزيف عبود ، دار الشرق العربي ، بيروت 1998م .
6- اللغة والجنس ، عيسى برهومة، دار الشروق ، عمَّان 2002م .
7- معجم القواعد العربية ، د. عبد الغني الدقر ، دار القلم ، دمشق 1993م .
8- المعجم المفصَّل في المذكر والمؤنث ، إميل يعقوب ، دار الكتب العلمية لبنان .

[1] المعجم المفصل في المذكّر والمؤنث، إميل يعقوب، ص 8-9 .
[2] المعجم الوسيط، 313
[3] المرجع السابق، 29
[4] جامع الدروس العربية ، مصطفى الغلاييني ،1/ 98 .
[5] شرح المفصّل ، ابن يعيش، 5/91
[6] جامع الدروس العربية، مصطفى الغلاييني، 1/98
[7] معجم القواعد العربية ، د. عبد الغني الدقر ، 138
[8] اللغة والجنس ، عيسى برهومة ، 55 .
[9] معجم القواعد العربية ، د. عبد الغني الدقر ، 138-139 .
[10] اللغة والجنس ، عيسى برهومة ، 56 .
[11] معجم القواعد العربية.د عبد الغني الدقر، 138
[12] المرجع السابق، 138-139
[13] المرجع السابق، 136
[14] شرح ابن عقيل، ابن عقيل،1/ 432-438، ومعجم القواعد العربية ، عبد الغني الدقر، 341-342
[15] معجم القواعد العربية ، 342
[16] التأنيث في اللغة العربية ، إبراهيم بركات ، 316-326 .
[17] قواعد اللغة الإنجليزية للدارسين العرب ، جوزيف عبود ، 29-34 .

 

 
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