pharmacy that sells motrin trazodone for insomnia user reviews buy voveran sr pills online viagra tablets for men price in india missed three doses of cymbalta septilin medication side effects rx lithium-1400 ??? canadian online pharmacy no rx prometrium 10 mg cost acheter pas cher nootropil is it illegal to order generic starlix buy endep online safely order sumycin tablets perrigo prednisone dose pack dutas tablets purchase on line holland and barrett acai tablets review buy estrogen for mtf geriforte syrup uk next day delivery how to use erythromycin gel for acne support for citizens united decision best price for lotensin what is cefadroxil capsules robaxin 750 mg uses free lipitor generic order eldepryl online in usa buy beconase aq 15mg online low cost overnight actonel abilify medication financial assistance plendil prices usa sertralina efectos alcohol drugs from india where can you buy real hoodia amitriptyline pills blue cabergoline side effects men can you buy viagra jellyfish in ireland ciprofloxacin uses in dogs lotensin suppliers overseas generic brand cialis no prescription ordering diamox lady era in the uk now accutane side effects 20 years later citalopram tablets 10mg buy zovirax with e check cheap sumycin usa kamagra oral jelly mit paypal comprar seroquel original remeron pharmacy prices list ultra low dose mircette pictures of mobic pills canadian amlodipine besylate 10mg picture buy alphagan 0.4 buy micardis in singapore effexor xr generic cost pharmacy buy brand viagra in canada buy betnovate lowest price premarin after delivery shuddha guggulu non perscription countries what is the cost of maxalt keppra rx abilify 5mg high what is metoclopramide hcl 10mg used for how to take viagra super active motrin and blood pressure medication depakote tablets valproate semisodium mirapex consumer reviews viagra plus ordering no prescription where do i buy midamor luvox delivery london what is rumalaya liniment tablets no prescription rosuvastatin to buy zetia in uk kytril online sales non generic renagel buy nizoral two shampoo online retino-a cream 0,025 generic 2013 drugs where cozaar high blood pressure medication periactin appetite stimulant uk buy diflucan fluconazole online buy bystolic 5 mg tablets brand advair diskus pharmacy ordering levitra professional pill prescription natural viagra replacements zantac mail order benefits of acai with green tea capsules buy suprax online usa indian generic periactin drug prescription drugs without rx chloromycetin online pay paypal buy feldene astrailia buy zenegra without rx casodex online coupon code maximum benadryl dose for adults online pharmacy no prescription valium buy metformin 10 paroxetine generic reviews where to purchase viagra soft paroxetine weight gain side effects how much will seroflo cost allopurinol prix en pharmacie en france benfotiamine capsules in india from zoloft to effexor colchicine italiano is alesse a high dose birth control etodolac noprescrition needed canada online pharmacy comprar deltasone original no prescription propecia sale paroxetine daily use reviews como comprar pilex buy accutane 10 mg isotretinoin beta lactamase ampicillin resistance ponstel india what does co trimoxazole treat what does tenormin fincar pas cher italie generic wellbutrin xl snovitra super power delivery fast diclofenac delivery silagra cipla brand cialis shipping overseas furosemide drug shortage vytorin pills zebeta with no perscription augmentin injection price in india post cycle therapy speman how to purchase lady era online buy levitra online no prescription usa e generic pharmacy review 40 mg ambien erowid generic acticin paypal chloromycetin eye ointment over the counter buy ritalin uk no prescription what kind of drug is haldol how long after accutane can i go tanning plavix free assistance programs tadalafil pay with paypal best place to order norvasc in us hoodia tablets online viagra medication canada buy valtrex with no prescription super active cosmetics cheap antabuse 250 mg generic buy advair diskus 50mcg micardis overnight get valtrax canada elavil for insomnia reviews tretinoin cream usp 0.025 side effects lanoxin 100mg cheap lipitor for sale usa keppra medication for seizures cafergot legal in england best online pharmacy generic himcolin cheapest eurax in the uk ro accutane wiki buy omnicef with paypal 36 hour cialis without a precrisption can you buy zenegra over the counter buy endep tablets online can you only get florinef on prescription what does celexa pill look like avalide mg buy tetracycline spain indian generics online ashwagandha online pharmacy uk feldene can you buy probalance nolvadex legal usa permanent side effects of avodart 24 medical advice european online pharmacy order delivery overnight generic plendil free or low cost amitriptyline overseas pharmacy no prescription retin-a ge how to get atarax cvs pharmacy jobs fajardo puerto rico ayurslim where can i buy it dosage of dilantin medication long term side effects of detrol generic inderal us premarin tablets coupons procardia in the uk xm radio viagra no prescription septilin getting fincar in australia pastillas cytotec precio mexico probalan results forum topical propecia for women mexican drug war the atlantic citalopram is generic for what drug zovirax 200 mg tabletter avandamet with paypal payment buy generic cymbalta online canada price increase ciplox best motilium prices seroquel dementia health canada what is glucophage made of avapro prescription assistance replaced her roommate;s birth control pills with baby aspirin alavert shortage list of tesco stores selling haldol buy maxalt bulk aceon through perindopril plavix discount pharmacy order amitriptyline 150 mg what is yasmin drug risperdal consta price in india prednisolone uk next day delivery v-gel online bestellen is it safe to take generic valtrex while pregnant buy coversyl plus online where to ralista order celexa overnight how to use lamisil spray ventolin for sale philippines penegra online pay paypal cialis jelly over counter no prescription online pharmacy pain meds order elocon cod celebrex generic alternative topical estrogen for sale synthroid user reviews best price for real benfotiamine viagra varieties ceftin buy without buy serophene singapore side effects of liposafe information zithromax capsules treatment buy zyrtec in usa yasmin birth control order online allegra in canada how to use dostinex generic brahmi in usa cutting lexapro pills in half prednisone 21 pack directions no prescription aristocort how to import forzest buy depakote uk buy erythromycin with no rx best place buy buspar buy brand clozaril cialis no prescription overnight delivery urispas italiano no prescription retin-a ge sale no prescription cialis jelly sale how to take lexapro and wellbutrin together comprar augmentine strattera pharmacy assistance long term side effects of taking viagra serpina rx long term side effects of mycelex-g generic cialis india danazol shortage 2012 como comprar pariet com desconto fastest florinef uk delivery cialis soft delivery cvs propecia prices serophene tablets information pfizer vgr 100 effects buy alli online no prescription canada nizoral birth control online uk champix pill wiki uk review buy kamagra online indian pharmacy cordarone trusted pharmacy viagra online reviews what is the drug nexium used for brand name endep online discount crestor coupons how much does lexapro cost with a prescription purchase generic extendaquin dostinex non perscription countries levothroid cost in canada ophthacare overnight pharmacy kamagra oral jelly ordering no prescription orlistat fda warning buy antivert greece eurax side effects long term use online sale of brand viagra kebaikan dan keburukan pil perancang mercilon lasix injection administration suppliers of xeloda in us can you get high from snorting cymbalta seroquel and cold medicine terramycin reviews for men procardia mist canada zyrtec 10mg tablets best online pharmacy generic zofran buy noroxin no prescription fast delivery where do i get accutane nexium 20mg or 40mg classification of ampicillin indian generics online sinemet clindamycin phosphate lotion low cost fincar proscar italiano diclofenac sodium topical gel in india cheap zebeta uk overnight pharmacy bentyl cod endep dosage recommended billig erexor online kaufen how long for bystolic to get out of system generic brands for mircette online pregnancy test calculator cipro buy online canada buy cheap erexin v generic name for mobic recommended cialis dosage levlen for sale uk elimite uk brand name no prescription online pharmacy xanax order adalat 1 pharmacy overnight zovirax medicine children paxil usa voltaren medication online how to get chloroquine drug maxifort rootstock seeds buy live ants california what does prometrium suppositories look like what is promethazine prescribed for lamisil commercial digger order generic aristocort flonase generic price walmart salbutamol guaifenesin syrup what is paxil for acai berry cost xenical tablets online tenormin birth control online uk buy cheap sinequan using pay pal what drug category is prednisolone clonidine sale levitra vs cialis review buying viagra online is it safe buy fenofibrate on line depakote rx assistance voltaren emulgel boots saw palmetto shopping lotrisone in canada zenegra free shipping where to accutane anacin side effects long term use motrin cheap tretinoin 0,025 mg buy baclofen withdrawal how long 20mg canadian buy amlodipine benazepril best time to take crestor medication brand viagra usa pharmacy use of ciplox-tz tablets cuanto cuesta xenical en costa rica cialis jelly lawsuit buy effexor xr 75mg trileptal next day colospa how to buy where can you buy real viagra from on the internet arimidex uk buy buy hoodia boots amitriptyline perth australia tetracycline 500mg dosage nizagara canada online no prescription where to buy tamoxifen with visa generic avalide buy max daily dose of norvasc vytorin 10 mg 40 mg what is rumalaya forte for is zyban a prescription drug do ovulation predictor kits work clomid canadian cialis soft tablet rumalaya gel drug schedule acai berry trees for sale grifulvin v dose what is micardis-telmisartan used for zantac discount coupon cheap strattera 40 mg metronidazole cream side effects order nexium online eldepryl western australia albuterol pioglitazone teva cost of generic prednisone lukol side effects long term use rosiglitazone metformin combination buy lithium orotate in canada revia 20 mg serpina side effects uk side effects of crestor 5mg non prescription bactrim proventil inhaler patient assistance program isoniazid without prescription miami isoniazid drugs for sale viagra plus sale order levitra nexium where can i buy where synthroid azathioprine and mercaptopurine mechanism of action cialis over counter uk comprar erythromycin original en madrid side effects of meclizine what date does singulair go generic zovirax results forum how to take atrovent best price cefixime does dostinex cause weight loss taking lisinopril to get high generic uk paypal seroflo india adalat price low altace online cheap zetia coupons free online generic mentax canada high dose panax ginseng olanzapine tablets atarax dose in children are there over the counter erection pills benicar generic substitute buy online cialis canadian pharmacies online cheap indocin 25mg does viagra work when you were drunk aceon 40 mg dose anxiety medication list for children online canadian pharmacy that takes paypal sumycin usa alavert user reviews order vardenafil online is antabuse prescription only aceon online usa no prescription acquistare zestril in italia generic pills for retino-a cream 0,05 buy premarin without a script levitra discount xenical on line no prescription allegra kurer acivir pills from india where can i buy an ipad mini with paypal buy blank dvds online australia aciclovir brand positioning to buy elimite in uk torsemide no prescription compare prices is there a generic form of clomid minocin cost buy over the counter anafranil online new customer discount drugstore.com walgreens prescriptions by mail cheapest vermox order revia rx lipitor usa cvs prices india zyvox price brand advair diskus in croatia what is propranolol hydrochloride for is zocor better than lipitor zithromax antibiotico benfotiamine online coupon code erexin-v for men sale in uk viagra to buy in london order calandar cheap buy decadron mg online can you get viagra on the internet cleocin gel tablets for purchase buy toprol online overnight delivery most reliable place to buy erythromycin online valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide usp minocycline generic buy viagra cyprus best drugstore foundation for pale dry skin sale avalide prescription online colleges offer pharmacy technician how to get viagra on nhs prescription how to buy buspar in canada generic from nitroglycerin current price exelon corporation stock how to get doxycycline for malaria nolvadex pct dosage for epistane xalatan for men in usa best pain pills to get high can you buy online cheap accutane trazodone vs amitriptyline sleep what does the word brahmin mean buy motrin 50 side effects of taking too much thyroid medication amantadine poisoning dialysis propecia from australia cost of adalat without insurance super active no prescription buy cheap levitra online pharmacy methotrexate 10 mg weekly buy differin tablets buy prandin online at canada pharmacy compazine medication side effects ampicillin tablets india cost of nexium at walmart pharmacy low 400mg albendazole online where can i buy cheap domperidone lexapro commercial amaryl 40mg is prilosec 20 mg over the counter lithium in croatia effexor from mexico no prescription drugs dogs chloroquine shortage 2012 buy zyban singapore fucidin cream usa viagra young healthy male calcium carbonate maximum safe dosage paxil dosages depression celebrex cost per pill side effects of norvasc medication where can i get my depo provera shot nexium online overnight what is the medication allopurinol for side effects of flagyl cream cheap neurontin gabapentin losec mups for babies side effects ventolin cough medicine where lynoral bupropion sr 100mg side effects what is rhinocort nasal spray used for urispas tablets used ci cipro reviews cheap yasmin pill is generic brand viagra effective best place to buy atarax online kamagra gold reviews otc stress and anxiety medication lamictal side effects weight gain cheap generic brahmi does cvs sell nizoral shampoo can you buy diflucan over the counter american ginette-35 can women take sildenafil citrate best generic micardis sites generic hyzaar uk paypal is it illegal to buy antibiotics from canada trimox drug schedule benzac next day shipping pharmacy mexico city airport online pharmacy no prescription needed birth control suhagra with prescription what is isoniazid for advair diskus price in canada buy purim online amazon triamterene in the uk now penegra dosage too high cheap accutane 1mg online buy levaquin with no script safe place order trileptal erythromycin non perscription countries lov cost prometrium walmart pharmacy pricing for viagra can order imitrex online albenza online order synthroid on line no script skelaxin suppositories buy online pharmacy nolvadex phone in order for silagra order avodart no prescription panax ginseng india prednisone 5mg daily dosage olanzapine for sale acai 20 mg luvox phone orders cost of aricept generic order zenegra tablets all types indocin pills buying prescriptions from canada online where to buy aspirin frozen acai australia generic omnicef uk paypal trandate for panic what is norvasc medication rimadyl side effects cordarone cheap cheapest zyban tablets uk amoxicillin 500mg dosage chest infection claritin coupons november 2012 order buy amitriptyline online anything over the counter that works like viagra viagra for sale with no prescription prevacid 30 mg sale lowest price metoclopramide is 4 corners pharmacy legitimate drug market order dapoxetine what over the counter is similar to prednisone pamelor online uk astelin canada head office buy maxaman in india online renagel prescription coupon minipress price india hytrin in the uk 1000 free online sports games generic atorlip-5 safe lov cost seroquel avalide canadian pharmacy aristocort order in the us buy prozac for dogs buy motilium paypal generic name for doxazosin is cleocin over the counter lopressor coupons doxycycline 100mg cheap viagra super active buy without buy sustiva online no prescription us nizoral cost in canada legal buy prescription drugs online no prescription comprar finpecia espan~a no prescription order isoniazid stromectol prices at costco tenormin suppositories buy mestinon generic wikipedia drugs urispas daily use reviews can you buy apcalis sx in ireland pharmacy we found love lyrics youtube buspar dosage range comprar cytotec en quito ecuador premarin on line in the usa get cialis las vegas zetia india twitter search widget can you buy phenergan over the counter in uk celebrex online pharmacy drugs bystolic 5 mg high blood pressure sale skelaxin biaxin barato buy saw palmetto inhaler canada orlistat shortage update july feldene better than ibuprofen prevacid coupons june 2012 cheap nizoral canada exelon usa today florinef woldwide shipping ciproxin 500 mg compresse where can i order trental inderal sale buying probalan in manchester buy malegra fxt visa lukol online forum top 10 online floxin sites suppliers of procardia in us baytril for guinea pigs safe 1 direction tickets is zyrtec prescription only benadryl tablets for sale diflucan 40 mg pharmacy bactroban pills buy zofran prescription drug viagra plus next day comprar speman pela internet brand lincocin buy leukeran delivery london ventolin salbutamol capsule what is prevacid for buy fml forte hong kong chinese discount what is abilify 2mg used for buy ditropan online efek samping obat blopress best place to buy atorlip-10 purchase trial erection packs 1 cheap what does the drug colchicine do trazodone overnight delivery what drug category is clonidine viagra pro order now buy lopid online amazon us online pharmacy no prescription ginseng diamox recommended dosage cheap aldactone buy buy abilify online us aripiprazole getting sponsorship to live in australia problems switching effexor xr to generic oxytrol pharmacy prices list phone in order for mircette buy lukol paypal is lynoral available over the counter atarax uk boots baclofen 5mg tablets nitrofurantoin tablets for sale vpxl 5mg tablets purinethol results forum is accutane better than tetracycline where is bora bora island on the map is it safe to order rhinocort cheapest capoten to buy best price kamagra chewable exelon reviews what is diclofenac gel elavil india what is seroflo 125 lasix online prescription erythromycin usa pharmacy free coupon for differin pulmicort ulotka skutki uboczne tofranil medication where to buy when will generic cialis be available in the us can you order feldene original clozaril online dapoxetine priligy dose hydroquinone tretinoin and mometasone furoate cream med cab cyklokapron what doses does diflucan come in purchase ventolin on line in australia levitra spain amitriptyline hcl 10mg high ?se puede comprar propecia sin receta medica can i get high off citalopram hydrobromide indian pharmacy calan puerto rico pharmacy school tuition desi tashan star plus drama generic wellbutrin problems 2010 when will celebrex be generic in us yasmin birth control online pharmacy generic orlistat cost cheap calan sr craigslist usa cars nevada proventil cheap uk what is keflex for dogs used for brahmi medication order what is voltaren retard 100mg used for remeron from canada consumer reviews of canadian pharmacies what is flagyl medication can you buy abilify online donnycarney artane credit union medicamento eutirox 50 mcg best price for prilosec generic birth control buy alesse online alphagan lawsuit settlements online sale of coumadin morning-after pill brands ceftin mg tablet celexa 40 mg for anxiety canadian healthcare manager rogers haldol weight gain current price ortho tri-cyclen cialis originale al prezzo piu` basso severe anxiety disorder clozaril on line purchase is generic speman available in usa amoxicil canadian pharmacy diflucan online sales side effects of estrace cream online generic wellbutrin sr cost of generic zoloft without insurance cialis online bestellen paypal can allopurinol cause weight gain over the counter drugs containing sildenafil reglan buy on line generic propecia finasteride 1mg finpecia birth control online india doxycycline hyclate delayed release tablets 150 mg acticin shopping wellbutrin sr 150 mg retard tabletta purchase diamox cialis vs viagra 2007 cheapest place buy nolvadex generic zyrtec weight gain liv 52 delivery uk canadian nitroglycerin tablet buy trental capsules vente de aceon au quebec vigra tablet for men price can you buy benzac over the counter sinequan 100 where do i cialis sublingual in canada foro sobre viagra generica tricor for sale uk how long do you have to take actonel low cost overnight minocycline can order urispas online luvox vs luvox cr 100 mg zyprexa side effects of keflex in dogs houses for sale in artane area where to buy precose ointment best otc diet pills for energy citalopram tablets uses clomiphene citrate use men phenergan generic india what is lisinopril hctz 20 12.5 mg what is the cost of cymbalta 30 mg where is the village filmed bbc1 lasix mg order cheap canadian zovirax no prescription prilosec without prescription ventolin where to get pyridium usa pill identifier- oxycontin 80 terramycin now fastest tenormin uk delivery my generic pharmacy cost of diamox tablets can you get a yeast infection from ciprofloxacin pilex cost comparison malegra fxt to buy in england aciclovir order on web finasteride tablets usp 1mg diclofenac potassium generic name can i take 30mg of cialis cialis soft tabs online generic pharmacy pharmaceutical wholesalers license order prevacid online with visa decadron no prescription compare prices can you buy terramycin ointment over counter diclofenac over the counter uk premarin pharmacy canada order viagra legally online haridra from usa viagra soft discount online pharmacy otc drugs prednisone dosage for dogs with addison;s generic elocon in usa prometrium online pharmacy uk healthy weight 30 year old man meclizine dose pediatric 365 days pharmacy how long does it take for coumadin to take effect no prescription super active plus buy cheap levitra chlamydia antibiotics azithromycin best price for dramamine cytotec side effects in dogs indian generic trandate buy crestor australia cordarone online usa maxaman medication side effects online pharmacy kytril do you need rx zovirax alli dosage orlistat losartan dose pediatric comprar hydrochlorothiazide pela internet female viagra dose isoptin mail order safe water pills weight loss zoloft now order duetact online uk ultra low dose hytrin where to minocycline buy lincocin online from usa buy celadrin perth australia can i get high off prazosin finpecia spain aldactone prescription effects doctor tadalafil online consultation using strattera for studying buying advair diskus in manchester what does lithium look like at room temperature buy cheap nizagara pills domperidone buy order abilify 2mg prescription buying digoxin from canada no prescription hyaluronic acid brand positioning buy permethrin spray clothes proventil inhaler coupon 2011 prescription prednisone for dogs i pill cytoxan website tricor prices walgreens bystolic anxiety symptoms motrin ibuprofen limon onlain kino methotrexate tablets on line to buy buy promethazine online from usa where to buy hytrin buy stromectol mg diovan hct normal dosage is mail order paxil safe where to buy cytotec in the philippines antibiotics and the pill bleeding retino-a cream 0,05 max dose buy desyrel dividose are mail order drugs from canada safe denver barbarians rugby club how much does lantus cost in mexico colospa uk next day delivery nizagara 100mg tablet diltiazem hcl generic name lamictal from india with out doctor prescription malaria medication chloroquine plavix rx assistance zyprexa mail order india noroxin delivery london lowest priced remeron purchase cialis soft in usa ethionamide cheap us pharmacy mail order luvox canadian cialis for sale alli weight loss pill buy online what other elements does lithium react with sominex australia price buy fluoxetine online prescription atorlip-5 best online non prescription pharmacy buy albenza cheap allegra over the counter tickets lisinopril 20 mg hctz 12.5mg medication advair diskus fluticasone and salmeterol orlistat medication order buy benadryl from india can you buy duetact zofran where to get do holland and barrett acai pills work prednisone cost comparison prescription generic order mobic online no prescription with a mastercard buying abortion pill prescription online diflucan effexor xr tablets us online maximum pantoprazole dose how much is viagra in uk kytril woldwide shipping fucidin lawsuit settlements best price for real premarin purchase sumycin cheap levitra vardenafil for erectile dysfunction effexor xr cost in canada iv furosemide protocol what is flonase tablets what is unisom pills used for lov cost emsam rimonabant side effects lamisil lawsuit canada what is eurax hydrocortisone used for colchicine online legally zantac cheap phenergan 25mg tablets what is it for orlistat overnight delivery get naprosyn toronto levaquin online from usa buy ceftin from mexico online protonix over counter drug sildenafil indian price genuine viagra soft best price side effects of doxycycl hyc 100mg cap where to get diclofenac pct side effects of finpecia tablets order authentic viagra online us pharmacies online that sell cymbalta order cardizem online without rx forzest shelf life purchase abilify pills 10 day weather forecast bristol side effects of avapro hct medication what does sinemet do cheapest danazol tablets uk lisinopril tablets usp 40 mg buy generic cefixime with bonus bystolic 100mg tablet mail order tadacip online viagra commercial smiling bob where to buy acai powder buy singulair cheap no prescription discount code for indocin can you get high off zyrtec syrup fastest isoptin uk delivery zocor medicine children rumalaya prix en pharmacie en france ceftin cheap bupron sr usa clomiphene citrate sale is diovan available over the counter wellbutrin weight gain forum max mendelsohn tennis donde puedo comprar viagra sin receta en capital federal finast reviews for men viagra sublingual buy uk buy prevacid canada get probalan toronto how to purchase toprol xl online reglan without a script buy over the counter diarex online can buy artane online cheap seroquel pills online sale of flovent buy tramadol online overnight fedex online pharmacy reviews 2013 aristocort online order can you cut a cialis tablet in half wisconsin ginseng sale where to buy lithium 0 grease stieva a cream 0.1 review rumalaya liniment max dose flagyl mg buy sarafem pills cialis daily 30 day free trial generic rosuvastatin buy canada buy fucidin online no prescription united states malegra fxt overnight delivery cheap nolvadex no prescription cheap tamoxifen uk cheap buy metformin online buy female cialis boots prednisone side effects australia buyers of sinemet canada rosuvastatin generic 40 mg where to buy z pak online chlamydia medication 4 pink pills can i buy zovirax cream over the counter can you order mobic betnovate 40mg buy synthroid in australia what drug category is arimidex online pharmacy uk prinivil generic grifulvin v no prescription dosage for diflucan for ringworm online female cialis india buy eriacta uk protonix 20 mg iv kamagra how much to take order dutas online with visa premarin results forum permethrin cream scabies eggs prazosin rxlist bad side effects of seroquel order avapro tablets zyban recommended dosage how long does it take to feel the effects of zyprexa comment acheter livre electronique cheap zyvox can you buy mobic in ireland prescription lamisil mobic costco cheap allopurinol pills 100mg generic buy januvia order crestor online discount order amaryl pill cost of atrovent buy seroquel pills in the us pharmacy one jordan zarqa how long to use nolvadex for pct generic keflex in usa what is quibron-t drugs babyface hyaluronic acid reviews tadalafil brands india finax australia pharmacy quiero comprar terramycin why has finax been discontinued order glucotrol xl 2.5 mg mirapex online uk how long will it take for metformin to work for pcos cozaar (losartan potassium) 100mg buy lasix with mastercard nike air max 1 nolvadex generico italiano can you drink wine on clarithromycin discount tenormin mg menosan tablets dosage use imitrex coupon online children;s motrin cost amoxicillin 500mg in early pregnancy what is the correct dosage of pariet cheap fluoxetine australia order aldactone lowest price buy toprol xl pills online femara for fertility side effects lipitor usage dosage zyloprim for purchase without a prescription mail order cialis generic vasotec shortage maximum dose of ropinirole chlamydia symptoms in men nhs zenegra tablets online zithromax drugs online purchases comprar cialis soft lopressor lawsuit canada buy wellbutrin with paypal risperdal online order wellbutrin xl dose for adhd cheapest allopurinol order zovirax cheap provera online order non generic antivert what works better than benadryl buy carbozyne australia elavil online meds can you order hyaluronic acid canadian medicines cymbalta reviews and side effects ventolin hfa inhaler for sale female viagra available canada where to get cefadroxil pct buy floxin 200 lady era 100mg cheap zithromax without prescription miami super active viagra generic pharmacy express scripts viagra original intent prescription medication for anxiety attacks cymbalta drugs side effects 1 cheap aciclovir tablets online offering buy gasex mg online where to buy antidepressants online canadian pharmacy exam preparation buy motilium mg online how much does chlamydia pills cost costo pastillas cytotec colombia can you buy decadron online lipitor without perscription how to take premarin and provera compare meloxicam and ibuprofen generic plavix in 2012 med cab methotrexate what is neurontin 100 mg used for what is the medicine for abortion buy female cialis uk alli diet pills discount voucher overseas pharmacy no prescription lithium indian ginseng hindi name lamisil uk brand name buying accutane in mexico low price suprax uk where to liposafe order viagra online cheap what does a zovirax pill look like how to get furosemide zovirax on line get prandin toronto buy nymphomax in uk alphagan on line no script is it true that watermelon is like viagra common side effects of mevacor real levitra hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg and pregnancy my naprosyn coupons resources for propecia plendil overseas cough syrup with codeine and promethazine for sale is xeloda legal in uk what is atenolol 25 mg used for rls medication mirapex cytotec en usa acai usage buy kamagra gel uk online pharmacy parlodel scabbies rx cananda canadian muscle and joint pain clinic what is the difference in zyrtec and zyrtec d what is doxycycline used for in canines mail order generic vytorin zoloft india sale voltaren usa cvs prices brand levitra women buy aspirin australia how to purchase cialis soft online prograf over counter uk over the counter medicine similar to prednisone tetracycline price without insurance what is the correct dosage of motrin very cheap floxin sinemet cr australia what does coreg side effects of short term prednisone therapy metoclopramide hydrochloride monohydrate safe place order lexapro clomid pregnancy calculator pharmacy rx one review canada will i gain weight with medrol dose pack ok mix cialis viagra buy dulcolax boots pharmacy mail-order coumadin best site get bupropion trustable online pharmacy tadalafil aleve liquid gels cost bismuth citrate hair side effects fda approved online pharmacy list buy metformin without rx buy differin pills in the canada revatio without a script order buspar online uk buy diovan online from mexico ranitidine brand names india doxycycline tablet sale better than cleocin gel best place to buy lexapro zyvox 600 mg cost lasix 10 mg iv use risperdal coupon online chelsea drugstore myspace what does bupropion xl look like pravachol missed dose nph insulin uk what does zantac cure retino-a cream 0,05 mg buy eulexin from usa buy cheap allopurinol using pay pal nitroglycerin medication children tetracycline prices at costco metformin online overnight no prescription vente de aristocort au quebec get alavert toronto walgreens pharmacy near me diet pill alli reviews what is the drug bentyl for ranitidine for sale australia what types of zestril are there levitra online usa over the counter prednisone substitute is viagra legal in england coversyl 10mg 30 tablets olmesartan medoxomil vs. losartan potassium clomid oral tablet 50 mg viagra brand order what drug category is levitra safe buy toradol online pilex from canada prescription drug orders current price nitroglycerin prozac overdose lethal maxalt dosage recommended bystolic cheapest price tamsulosin online uk azithromycin dose to treat chlamydia nexium drug company citalopram tablets used for clonidine mail order india buy carbozyne in ireland cardura dose best place to buy levitra plus vpxl canada sale order buy innopran xl generic dilantin dose for seizure duetact dosage isotretinoin roaccutane what is the best alternative to viagra purchase nymphomax cheap canadian pharmacy cialis tadalafil med cab xalatan pilex discounts codes ambien walrus know your meme amitriptyline weight gain cozaar dosage range buying rumalaya from canada no prescription top 10 online isoptin sites lexapro reviews for menopause cipla pharmaceuticals south africa name of medical abortion pills in india pulmicort turbuhaler ulotka side effects of pantoprazole sodium sesquihydrate generic amitriptyline for dogs how to purchase motilium online allie finkle rules for girls textbooks in order what is ranitidine medication alternatives for prednisone dog allergies buspar tablets 150 mg himalaya geriforte price india d buy cheap allegra where to buy nootropil drugs online purchase combivent pills buy clonidine without rx remeron antidepressants that cause weight loss buy viagra plus in singapore anyone ordered clomid online ventolin salbutamol sulphate side effects acivir online pharmacy shipped to canada buy atacand without rx levitra from usa alli 60mg hard capsules purchase furosemide no prescription what is augmentin mg used to treat phenergan codeine price shallaki tablets side effects cost of amoxil without insurance non prescription anxiety medication uk why has pyridium plus been discontinued cost of paxil cr norvasc 10mg price comprar propecia online benicar hct generic substitute cost of viagra in barcalona spain singulair shop what are the side effects of coming off fluoxetine amlodipine besylate 5mg tabs my advair diskus coupons buy tinidazole australia walmart pharmacy paroxetine cymbalta online bestellen prometrium pills while pregnant bentyl medicine wiki what are the side effects of diclofenac tablets best place to buy nitroglycerin decadron spain flovent inhaler dose prilosec rx to otc switch buy online zocor generic generic drug for actoplus met atomoxetine erowid prescription for cipro deltacortril enteric side effects periactin tablet what is it for acai generico italiano zestril lisinopril dihydrate buy albenza 10 rocky point mexico pharmacies cialis 20mg user reviews what is the difference between viagra and viagra super active cialis singapore buy silagra for daily use canada buy bactrim greece birth control ortho tri cyclen lo acne online pharmacy zofran is it illegal to order generic seroflo costco prilosec otc bystolic 20 mg tablet acheter pas cher nitrofurantoin liquid naprosyn review where can i get some levlen zyrtec 100 ct does abilify come in generic form super kamagra fast delivery liv 52 medication side effects far 120 drug cipro mexican pharmacy foreign online pharmacies reviews baclofen without script where to get ampicillin fml forte tablets online caverta online pharmacy flonase prices cvs greenline pharmacy reviews desyrel onlline europe tesco pharmacy summer placement donde comprar hoodia p57 en chile can you order cialis how does accutane work side effects med cab snovitra super power buy brand cialis from mexico online dog medicine prednisolone are all pink pills in yaz the same buy atorlip-10 new zealand online where purchase terramycin lasuna uk buy advair diskus overnight shipping cheap aristocort mail order malegra fxt with no rx artane mg buy mexican nolvadex lisinopril 10mg lupin ciprofloxacin tablets for purchase ordering valtrax 500mg how long does it take for levaquin to get out of your system order digoxin overnight cozaar uk buy robaxin drugs for sale enalapril tablets spc swiss herbal water pills does pliva 433 get you high avapro uses medication viagra en ligne zantac order by phone what does entocort treat generic name for zoloft can you buy metronidazole or clindamycin over the counter how to take metoclopramide 10mg tablets is getting prescription drugs from canada legal cleocin t lotion cafergot pills online in the usa brand antivert for sale where to buy cheap generic danazol is ventolin inhaler the same as albuterol best time to take celexa medication erexor order by phone paxil cr recommended dosage buy periactin pills in the mexico onde comprar injec,a~o depo provera ginseng prices per pound ethionamide buy canada what is clavamox for cats cheap advair diskus 11 pharmacy tijuana pharmacy prices kroger pharmacy edgewood madison order calanoida characteristics aciphex 40 mg dose purchase noroxin lowest price lowest price ventolin official canadian pharmacy reviews can you inject toradol pills viagra online uk cheapest cialis is it legal to order from canadian pharmacy why has tricor been discontinued buying aspirin with codeine in canada reviews on allopurinol voltaren d 50 mg diclofenac is mail order allopurinol safe seroquel shelf life dosage of viagra for pulmonary hypertension uroxatral discount buy arimidex canada pharmacy technician online trileptal refill pack cost of keppra 750 mg where to buy low level pvp gear alliance guaranteed lamictal online legally trazodone tablets side effects cheapest tadacip to buy motrin visa what is pravachol used for brand sale prescription order viagra birth control no prescription canada compare prices fluoxetine ranitidine india manufacturer generic brand amoxil safe is mail order actos safe buying flagyl er using paypal buy genuine anacin uk cost of lozol without insurance descargar libro culturismo sin tonterias gratis pdf low cost overnight ditropan pariet no prrescription hyaluronic acid ampoules sale generic uk paypal celebrex best place to order altace in us zestril 2.5 mg tablet altace now co uk what does phenergan feel like codeine where lithium hydrochlorothiazide prices amoxicillin no prescription dog where can i buy retin a in the uk vermox reviews and dosage cheap remeron online what does lithium do to become stable viagra pas cher pharmacie paris herpies pills oxytrol next day what is requip dilantin discounts codes decadron tablets dexamethasone tablets antibiotics to buy online with paypal crestor commercial 2011 can youtube buy cheap zestril arthritis care wales ordering zithromax usa buy lynoral online usa ordering low dose lisinopril buy noroxin online india buying prescription drugs online illegal glucophage canada head office kroger low cost prescription drugs where to buy venlor in canada safely sodium naproxen uk what does 100mg of viagra do ordering zanaflex uk is mail order levitra plus safe arimidex weight gain news are asthma inhalers free que es amantadina clorfenamina paracetamol does clomid increase libido in men generic lipitor price drop cost of tinidazole plavix 75 mg manufacturer buy dutas in usa lotensin paypal purchase lexapro online walmart pharmacy online prescriptions methotrexate reviews from users buy levlen online in usa phexin sublingual dosage top 10 online keppra sites tamoxifen sold over counter augmentin duo tablets used for what can i buy with unverified paypal over the counter dipyridamole most popular indian pharmacies erythromycin alcohol solution what drug class is mevacor synthroid no prrescription where can i get robaxin viagra blackburn asacol side effects tetracycline over the counter india toradol pharmacy coupons nolvadex side effects steroids can you order remeron best herbal viagra alternative home remedies for increasing libido lisinopril 20 mg used over the counter inhaler for exercise induced asthma procardia xl weight gain cialis plus viagra xhamster online pharmcy viagra 40 pills for 99 $ prevacid fast uk azulfidine 500 mg preis arimidex on line in the mexico how effective is chlamydia medication my chloromycetin coupons canada drug pharmacy coupon acquisto lopressor sicuro online generic name for diovan aspirin overdose symptoms use lariam coupon online nexium store interaction generic aarp medicare part d prior authorization form viagra super active order by phone is cozaar better than lisinopril where to myambutol can we trust ponstel online what is metoprolol tartrate ceftin reviews for acne online cialis scam safe viagra purchase online cipro and flagyl side effects synthroid generic 2013 drugs buy bystolic online cheap buy vasotec 100 inhouse pharmacy uk reliable metmorfin dosage for pcos revia supplier in uk zyvox medicine mestinon discount coupon how to get elavil on line arimidex or nolvadex for pct buy cephalexin dogs without rx generic ezetimibe 10 mg healthboards etodolac where can clomid be purchased endep dose pain how to by kamagra gold online aldactone discount voucher olanzapine no prescription needed buy avalide usa finpecia visa seroquel without prescription betnovate limited india retin over the counter usa clomid cycle days naprosyn 500mg price eulexin delivery colchicine compounding pharmacy prevent buy triamterene with visa toddler dose of infant motrin extendaquin from china can you buy hyzaar drugs prescription crestor generic costco can you buy avandamet over the counter generic valtrex walmart viagra se necesita receta medica generic drugs online paypal pills that make you have an erection zovirax pills and pregnancy fucidin h cold sores generic viagra products doctors reviews on femara lipitor $4.00 copay card participating pharmacies 20 mg cialis price rosuvastatin uk brand name buy femara online from uk what does abilify do to the body zithromax cheap australia pharmacy what does provera diclofenac uses medication amoxicillin and the birth control pill can i make vantin nitroglycerin in canada serevent online can we trust colchicine online dipyridamole cost brand amantadine buy omifin precio chile buying sinemet for dogs s max dimensions astelin india 50mg clomid australia is there any over the counter medicine for abortion true generic viagra mirapex for fibromyalgia treatment blopress woldwide shipping blopress where to purchase bystolic from canada carafate suspension for sale buying crestor for dogs liv 52 legal in england vitamin shoppe coupon code 20 off 2012 order cleocin tablets ventolin without insurance without a script buy allegra can you buy zebeta online cheap drug non generic hoodia no prescription lisinopril-hctz valtrex dosage for herpes outbreak how to buy prescriptions from canada hydrochlorothiazide medication hair loss rosuvastatin pharmacy order where to buy pain pills online drug market order prazosin buy synthroid online flagyl dose small dogs glycomet refill pack rhinathiol syrup side effects india drugs online no prescription clonidine dosage for hot flashes buy atacand australia best online pharmacy generic aciphex comprar viagra generico brasil purchase trileptal 600 mg tinidazole tablets keflex 250 mg side effects purchase prednisone 5mg viagra usa price health canada eldepryl pill rx health seroquel products flomax tablets purchase on line oregon state football schedule is generic zebeta effective viagra sin preccrition eulexin supplier in uk viagra gel his billig nolvadex online kaufen buy endep 100mg online where is alli pills what is the medicine cephalexin used for generic yasmin usa pharmacy accidental double dose of children;s motrin buy proventil inhaler discount hydrochlorothiazide canada what is the generic form of lisinopril estradiol test fertility motilium 10 mg tabletas can you buy glyset over the counter in germany effexor xr withdrawal nausea arimidex vs tamoxifen pct wellbutrin xl price canada indian pharmacy saw palmetto buy evecare online with mastercard mail order viagra legitimate list of tesco stores selling diabecon capoten over counter levitra 20mg bayer prix how to order cholestoplex online forum cod order rhinocort uk version of micronase buy forzest greece lasix pills side effects american calan buy nitroglycerin mg metformin 1000 mg tablet is lipitor a prescription drug 100 mg avapro order atarax overnight where can you find alligator snapping turtles estrofem tablet kullananlar i pill himcocid website brand advair diskus without prescription miami cost of ciplox viagra chewable mexico alli weight loss program coupons costa rica pharmacy online can you take xalatan daily generic for cardizem generic trimox usa pharmacy very cheap hoodia max aleve dose buy triamterene 15mg online atorlip-5 uk next day delivery drug market order sominex vantin pharmacy order lowest priced atarax cafergot tablets purchase on line non prescription zyvox 600 mg can you snort neurontin capsules fincar where to get culturismo natural sin suplementos dilantin on line no script pharmacy express prescriptions order albendazole online with visa cardura online pharmacy uk amantadine over counter uk pictures of prednisone pills buy viagra from pfizer buy chloromycetin pills pharmacy reviews on lanoxin metformin from meijer valtrex generic for cheap where to seroquel purchase prevacid in australia order doxazosin online pharmacy canadian what is alesse 28 what does seroquel 25 mg do to you septilin women buy aspirin medicine uses sale online cheap tadapox average dose of seroquel for schizophrenia cheapest price for nolvadex cardura 4 mg tablet can you get a tattoo while on minocycline where can i buy chloroquine in canada trileptal from canada prednisone dosage treatment of eczema florinef dogs side effects premarin pas cher get medrol las vegas exelon 40mg purim generic wikipedia drugs tetracycline pill shortage what is urispas tablets used for kamagra oral jelly generic release date omnicef discount voucher top 10 online snovitra super power sites isotretinoin acne scars ebay viagra where coumadin initial risk order periactin from uk without prescription hyaluronic acid india manufacturers sdz valsartan 80 mg cheap benzac should bactrim suspension stored pharmacy viagra for sale denver indian jelly viagra online is mtabs legitimate buy diovan paypal accepted where can i get cholestoplex pills deltacortril enteric naprosyn ordering no prescription buyers of provera canada what all does cymbalta treat
الرئيسية | العربيّة واللغات الأخرى | دراساتٌ لغويّةٌ مقارنة | ظاهرة التذكير والتأنيث بين العربية والإنجليزية - ابتهال محمد علي البار
 

صفحة شبكة صوت العربية في فيسبوكtwitterقناة شبكة صوت العربية في يوتيوبشبكة صوت العربية في موقع فليكر

ظاهرة التذكير والتأنيث بين العربية والإنجليزية - ابتهال محمد علي البار طباعة إرسال إلى صديق
تقييم المستخدمين: / 6
سيئجيد 
الكاتب صوت العربية   
الاثنين, 28 يوليو 2008 17:04

ابتهال محمد علي البار ( محاضرة بجامعة الملك عبد العزيز- قسم اللغة العربية )

من آيات الله العجيبة في هذا الكون أن خلق من كل زوجين اثنين كما قال تعالى : " وأنه خلق الزوجين الذكر والأنثى " فكثير من العوالم تقوم على التزاوج بين الجنسين ليس في عالم الإنسان فحسب بل في عالم الحيوان والنبات بل حتى بين الذرَّات الموجبة والسالبة .

ولا شك أن هذا الاختلاف في الجنس يستلزم اختلاف الألفاظ التي تطلق على كل من الذكر والأنثى، وهي ظاهرة جليَّة في كل لغات العالم لكننا ها هنا سنركِّز عليها في لغتنا العربية مع مقارنة بسيطة باللغة الانجليزية .
ظاهرة التذكير والتأنيث في العربية :
اعتنى الباحثون قديمًا وحديثًا بمسألة التذكير والتأنيث عناية تفوق عنايتهم بأي ظاهرة لغوية، فقلما نجد لغويًا من القدامى إلا وأفرد لهذه المسألة كتابًا خاصًّا أو رسالة خاصة، كذلك اهتم الباحثون بهذه المسألة فحقَّقوا الكتب الخاصة بها .
والتذكير والتأنيث من القضايا الشائكة التي يكثر فيها الخطأ خصوصًا من الكتاب، فإذا استثنينا المؤنث الحقيقي والمذكر الحقيقي فإننا لا نجد صلة بين الاسم وجنسه، وقد ترتَّب عن فقدان هذه الصلة عدَّة أمور منها :أن الكلمة قد تكون مذكرة عند بعض القبائل ومؤنثة عند بعضها الآخر، فمثلاً كلمة "الإبهام" مؤنثة إلاّ عند بني أسد، وليس هذا الإشكال بين القبائل العربية فحسب بل إن انعدام الصلة بين الاسم وجنسه أدَّى إلى اختلاف التذكير والتأنيث بين اللغات، "فالخمر" مثلاً في العربية مؤنث وهي مذكر في الألمانية، "والقمر" مذكر في العربية ومؤنث في الفرنسية وكثيرًا ما يؤدي ذلك لأخطاء في الترجمة . ومما يزيد الأمر تعقيدًا أن علامات التأنيث الثلاثة ( الألف الممدودة، الألف المقصورة، تاء التأنيث أو هاء التأنيث ) قد نجدها في المذكر[1] .
تعريف التذكير والتأنيث من الناحية اللغوية :
التذكير في اللغة مأخوذ من الشدة، يقال: رجل ذكر  أي: قوي شجاع أبيّ، ومطر ذكر: وابل شديد، وقولٌ ذكر: صُلبٌ متين.[2]
والتأنيث مأخوذ من اللين، يُقال: تأنَّث في الأمر: لان ولم يتشدَّد، والأنيث:غير الصُّلب، ومكانٌ أنيث: سهل مِنْبات. [3]
وإذا أردنا أن نُقسم الجنس في اللغة نجده على النحو التالي :
alt 1) حقيقي                                       2) مجازي
مذكر   مؤنث                                    مذكر   مؤنث
فالمذكر هو ما يصّح أن تُشير إليه بقولك "هذا" وهو قسمان: حقيقي ومجازي .
الأول : ما يدل على ذَكر من الناس أو الحيوان ، مثل: "رجل، أسد".[4] أو كما قال ابن يعيش: " ما كان للمذكر منه فرجٌ خلاف فرج الأنثى، كالرجل ، والمرأة"[5]
والنوع الثاني هو المجازي: وهو ما يُعامل معاملة الذكر وليس منه، مثل:"ليل، بدر، قمر" .
أما المؤنث: فهو ما يصح أن تشير إليه بقولك "هذه" .[6]
والمؤنث أيضًا نوعان :
1- المؤنث الحقيقي وهو : ما يقابله ذكرٌ مِنْ كل ذي روح،[7] ومعيار العلماء في هذا الصنف واضح ومنضبط، لأن ذلك مرتبط بالجانب المادي . وهو يُعرف قياسًا وسماعًا كانت فيه علامة أو لم تكن، مثل "سعاد" "زينب" "امرأة" "فاضلة" والعاري من العلامة يعرف تأنيثه بعدة أمور منها الاستدلال بالإشارة إلى مسمَّاه في القرب بـ ( ذي ) وفي البعد بـ ( تلك ) أو بالضمير العائد[8] .
2- مجازي وهو : ما عاملته العرب معاملة المؤنثات الحقيقية مثل : "شمس" "حرب" "نار" والمدار في هذا على النقل ، ويستدل على ذلك بعدة أمور منها :الضمير العائد عليه، نحو قوله تعالى: ﴿النار وعدها الله الذين كفروا ﴾ (72:الحج)، وقوله تعالى: ﴿ حتى تضع الحرب أوزارها﴾[9] ( 4: محمد) . ولا ُمـمَيِّز لهذا النوع ولا ضابط له، لأنه لا يدل على ذات حقيقية أو محسوسة . وأُلحق بالمؤنث على سبيل المجاز، فهو موقوف على الوضع والاصطلاح .وقد أشكل على اللغويين والنحويين فأفردوا له الرسائل، رغبة في ضبطه وتقييده حتى يظن الباحث أن مسألة التذكير والتأنيث قد خُصِّصت للمجازي، فالمؤنث الحقيقي معلوم من اللغة بالضرورة[10] .
ينقسم المؤنث باعتبار لفظه إلى ثلاثة أنواع :
1- المؤنث اللفظي .
2- المؤنث المعنوي .
3- المؤنث اللفظي المعنوي .
فالمؤنث اللفظي : ما كان علما لمذكّر ، وفيه علامة تأنيث، مثل : " زكرياء، طلحة، كِنانة"
والمؤنث المعنوي : ما خلا من العلامة وكان علمًا لمؤنث مثل : "زينب، أم كلثوم" .
والمؤنث اللفظي المعنوي : ما كان علمًا لمؤنث،  وفيه علامة تأنيث مثل : "صفية" "خنساء، سُعدى"[11] .
علامات التأنيث :
على قول الفراء خمس عشرة علامة، ثمان منها في الأسماء : الهاء، الألف الممدودة، المقصورة، تاء الجمع في نحو "الهندات"، الكسرة في "أنتِ"، النون في "أنتنَّ" و"هنَّ" والتاء في "أخت" و"بنت" والياء في "هذي" .
وأربع في الأفعال : التاء الساكنة في مثل : "قامت" والياء في "تفعلين" والكسرة في "قمت" والنون في "فعلن" .
وثلاث في الأدوات : التاء في "ربّة" و"ثمّة" و"لات" والتاء في "هيهات" والهاء والألف في نحو "إنها هند" .
وأشهر علامات التأنيث في الأسماء : التاء وألف التأنيث المقصورة والممدودة .[12]
ما يستوي فيه التذكير والتأنيث :
هناك خمسة أوزان يستوي فيها المذكر والمؤنث وهي :
- "فعيل" بمعنى مفعول مثل:  "كف خضيب" .
- "فعول" بمعنى فاعل نحو: " صبور، وشكور" .
- "مِِـِِفعـال"  نحو : " مِـهذار، مِكْسال" .
- "مِـفعيل" نحو :" مِعطير، و مِِـئشير من الأَشَر وهو الكِبر" .
- "مِـفعل" نحو: " ِمـغْشم" .[13]
تأنيث الفعل :
للفعل ثلاث حالات من حيث التذكير والتأنيث وهي :
1- الوجوب .
2- الجواز .
3- الامتناع .
إذا كان الفاعل مؤنثًا أُنِّثَ فعله بتاء ساكنة في آخر الماضي جامدًا كان الفعل أو متصرفًا، تامًّا أو ناقصًا، وبتاء المضارعة في أول المضارع.
ويجب هذا التأنيث في ثلاث مسائل:
1- أن يكون الفاعل ضميرًا متصلاً يعود على مؤنث حقيقي، أو مجازي، مثل:" فاطمة تعلمت  أو تتعلَّم " والمجازي نحو:" الشجرة أثمرت أو تثمر ".
2- أن يكون الفاعل ظاهرًا حقيقي التأنيث ، مفردًا أو مثنى أو جمع مؤنث نحو ، قوله تعالى: ﴿إذ قالت امرأة عمران﴾( 35:آل عمران)،  ونحو: " جاءت البنتان " " أقبلت المسلمات ".
3- أن يكون ضمير جمع تكسير لمذكّر غير عاقل، نحو: "الأيام بك ابتهجت، أو ابتهجن " أو ضمير يعود على جمع مؤنث سالم ،أو جمع تكسير لمؤنث نحو:" الهندات أو الهنود فرحت ، أو فرحْن".
ويجوز التأنيث في أربعة مواضع:
1-أن يكون الفاعل اسمًا ظاهرًا مجازي التأنيث نحو: " أثمر الشجرة، أثمرت الشجرة" أو حقيقي التأنيث وفصل من عامله بغير إلاّ مثل: سافر أو سافرت اليوم فاطمة. كقول الشاعر:
إنَّ امرءاً غرّه منكُنَّ واحدةٌ            بعدي و بَعدكِ في الدنيا لمغرور
2-أن يكون جمع تكسير لمذكر، مثل " الرجال" أو لمؤنث مثل " الهنود، أو جمع مؤنث سالم ، مثل" الهندات" نحو : " جاءت أو جاء الغلمان أو الجواري" ، و " حضرت أو حضر الهندات" فإثبات التاء لتأوّله بالجماعة، وحذفها لتأوّله بالجمع.
3- أن يكون ضمير جمع مكسّر عاقل نحو:" الكتائب حضرت أو حضروا".
4-أن يكون الفعل من باب "نعم" والفاعل مفردا مؤنثًا حقيقيا ظاهرًا نحو:" نعم أو نعمت المرأة هند"، وإنما جاز ذلك لأن الفاعل مقصودٌ به استغراق الجنس ، فعومل معاملة جمع التكسير في جواز إثبات التاء، وحذفها.[14]
ويمتنع التأنيث في ثلاث صور:
1- أن يكون الفاعل مفصولاً بإلاّ نحو:" ما أقبل إلا فاطمة".
2- لأن يكون مذكرًا معنى فقط أو معنى ولفظًا ظاهرًا أو ضميرًا نحو:" اجتهد طلحة وعليٌّ ساعده".
3- أن يكون جمع مذكر سالم ، نحو:﴿ قد أفلح المؤمنون﴾ ( 1: المؤمنون)[15].
المنع من الصرف في المؤنث:
" يلاحظ نحويًّا أن كل ما يتصل بالأنثى بخاصة من أسماء فإنها لاتصرف. ومعنى الصرف في اللغة العربية التنوين، فالممنوع من الصرف هو الممنوع من التنوين، ويقرن بالمنع من الصرف عدم الكسر".
ويمكن تلخيص الممنوع من الصرف المتعلق بالمؤنث فيما يلي:
1-كل ما أُطلق على الإناث من أعلام، مثل العلم المؤنث لفظيًّا أو معنويًّا كـ " نجلاء وسحر "أو ما كان منقولاً من ذكر كأن تسمَّى امرأة " جلال أو قمر".
2- الصفات الخاصة بالأنثى وبها علامة تأنيث نحو: عطشى، سكرى، حمراء".
3- المشبه بالأنثى، فجموع التكسير مختومة بألف ممدودة فتمنع من الصرف لشبهها بالمؤنث المختوم بألف ممدودة[16].
التذكير والتأنيث في اللغة الإنجليزية:
الاسم في الإنجليزية من حيث الجنس أربعة أنواع وهي:
- المذكر: وهو ما دلّ على ذكر مثل:
Boy-Brother
- المؤنث: وهو ما يدلُّ على مؤنث، مثل:
Girl-Sister
- الاسم المشترك بين المذكر والمؤنث، مثل:
Child-Pupil
- الاسم المحايد، مثل:
Book-Pencil
طرق التأنيث في الإنجليزية:
1- بتغيير نهاية الكلمة:

شاعرة : Poetess                    شاعر :Poet

يهودية : Jewess                       يهودي : Jew

ممثلة : Actress                      ممثل : Actor

2- بإضافة كلمة مؤنثة:

ابنة عم         Girl Cousin           ابن عم Boy Cousin

جدَّة            Grand Mother         جدّ     Grand Father

صديقة         Girl Friend           صديق  Boy Friend3-

3- بتغيير الكلمة :

بنت            Girl               ولد      Boy
زوجة          Wife            زوج     Husband
امرأة           Woman       رجل [17]Man
بمقارنة هذه الظاهرة في الإنجليزية والعربية يتضح ما يلي :
1- دقة التقسيم والتصنيف في العربية، إذ لا نجد ما يسمّى بالجنس المحايد كما هو الحال في الإنجليزية، كما لا توجد مفردات يستوي فيها التذكير والتأنيث إلا بعض الأوزان المحدودة والمحصورة في صيغ معدودة، ولعل ذلك يكشف عن أهمية التصنيف الجنسي لدى العربي الذي تحتّم عليه حياته الاجتماعية وموروثاته الفكرية وعاداته وتقاليده القبلية أن يحدّد بدقّة جنس كل مفردة وكلمة بل حتى كل عضو من أعضاء جسده.
2- غزارة طرق التأنيث في العربية، فمنها ما له علاقة بالأفعال ومنها ما له علاقة بالأسماء وبالحروف، مما يجعل تعلُّم علامات التأنيث عملية مربكة للغاية لاسيّما لغير الناطقين بالعربية بخلاف الإنجليزية.
3- ظاهرة تأنيث الفعل في اللغة العربية من الظواهر التي تميّز لغتنا، وتكمن أهميتها في أنها تسهّل كثيرًا معرفة الجنس بمجرد قراءة الفعل ولو كان بمعزل عن السياق.
فمثلاً: الفعل: " تأكل " يدلّ على مؤنث وليس الأمر كذلك في She eat.
4- ظاهرة الممنوع من الصرف التي تميّزت بها العربية تدلّ على العقلية والنفسية العربية التي أرادت تمييز هذه الكلمات بالذات لما لها من خصوصية عند العربي، فكان لا بد لها أن توسم بعلامة لتميّزها عمّا جاورها من الكلمات. ولا شك أن هذه الظاهرة ليست موجودة في الإنجليزية لعدم وجود نظام الإعراب بجملته.
5- امتداد ظاهرة التذكير والتأنيث من المفرد إلى المثنى والجمع، في العربية بخلاف اللغة الانجليزية.

-----------------------------------

المراجع
1- التأنيث في اللغة العربية ، د. إبراهيم بركات ، دار الوفاء ، المنصورة 1988م .
2- جامع الدروس العربية ، مصطفى الغلاييني، المكتبة العصرية ، بيروت 1995م .
3- شرح ابن عقيل ، ابن عقيل، تحقيق : محيي الدين عبد الحميد، المكتبة العصرية، بيروت، 1995
4- شرح المفصَّل ، ابن يعيش ، عالم الكتب ، بيروت .
5- قواعد اللغة الإنجليزية ، جوزيف عبود ، دار الشرق العربي ، بيروت 1998م .
6- اللغة والجنس ، عيسى برهومة، دار الشروق ، عمَّان 2002م .
7- معجم القواعد العربية ، د. عبد الغني الدقر ، دار القلم ، دمشق 1993م .
8- المعجم المفصَّل في المذكر والمؤنث ، إميل يعقوب ، دار الكتب العلمية لبنان .

[1] المعجم المفصل في المذكّر والمؤنث، إميل يعقوب، ص 8-9 .
[2] المعجم الوسيط، 313
[3] المرجع السابق، 29
[4] جامع الدروس العربية ، مصطفى الغلاييني ،1/ 98 .
[5] شرح المفصّل ، ابن يعيش، 5/91
[6] جامع الدروس العربية، مصطفى الغلاييني، 1/98
[7] معجم القواعد العربية ، د. عبد الغني الدقر ، 138
[8] اللغة والجنس ، عيسى برهومة ، 55 .
[9] معجم القواعد العربية ، د. عبد الغني الدقر ، 138-139 .
[10] اللغة والجنس ، عيسى برهومة ، 56 .
[11] معجم القواعد العربية.د عبد الغني الدقر، 138
[12] المرجع السابق، 138-139
[13] المرجع السابق، 136
[14] شرح ابن عقيل، ابن عقيل،1/ 432-438، ومعجم القواعد العربية ، عبد الغني الدقر، 341-342
[15] معجم القواعد العربية ، 342
[16] التأنيث في اللغة العربية ، إبراهيم بركات ، 316-326 .
[17] قواعد اللغة الإنجليزية للدارسين العرب ، جوزيف عبود ، 29-34 .

 

 
Joomla Templates and Joomla Extensions by JoomlaVision.Com
Joomla Templates by Joomlashack