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لافتة إعلانية
لافتة إعلانية
لافتة إعلانية
ملخص بحث ( الألفاظُ اللغويّةُ الدالّةُ على العَدَد ). طباعة إرسال إلى صديق
تقييم المستخدمين: / 7
سيئجيد 
الكاتب عبد العزيز الحميد   
الثلاثاء, 15 يوليو 2008 11:33

 ملخص بحث ( الألفاظُ اللغويّةُ الدالّةُ على العَدَد: منشور في مجلة الدرعية (الرياض)، العددان الحادي والثاني والخمسون، السنة الثالثة عشرة، محرم 1433هـ يناير2012م، ص 379- 438 ).
 
يتناول البحث نوعاً من ألفاظ الأعداد غير ما يرد في باب العدد في كتب النحو ، وهو نوع آخر من الألفاظ الدالّة على الأعداد لم تجد عنايةً كبيرةً من الباحثين ، فهو لا يدخل تحت قواعد النحو ؛ لأنّ كلماته ليست أرقاماً ملفوظةً ، بل هي كلماتٌ لغويّةٌ تدلّ على أعداد معيّنةٍ اصطلح العرب عليها ، وهي كأسماء أعضاء الجسم ، والنباتات ، والحيوانات ، وغيرها من المسمّيات ، فبينما يقول أحدهم عن عدد إبله : مائةٌ من الإبل ، يقول الآخر : هُنَيْدَة ، فيفهم السامع من الثاني ما فهمه من الأول ، ومثله عشرات الألفاظ التي سيأتي ذكرها في البحث ، ومن أمثلتها : الرَهْط لما دون العشرة من الناس ، والصِدْعَة للستين من الإبل ، والفِزْر من الضأن ما بين العشر إلى الأربعين ، والبِضْع : بين الثلاثة والعشرة .
وقد يقف المطّلع على هذا النوع من الألفاظ متعجّباً منها ؛ ذلك أنّه توجد أسماءٌ معروفة للعدد تدلّ على أعداد الأشياء بدقّة ، يحويها بابٌ مستقلٌّ من أبواب النحو ، ومع ذلك وجدنا العرب يستعملون في كلامهم تلك الألفاظ اللغويّة ليعبّروا بها عن أعداد أهمّ وسائل حياتهم ، من أعداد البشر ، والإبل ، والخيل ، والغنم ، وغيرها .
ولا ننسى أن العربيّ حينما يتعلّق مراد كلامه ببيان العدد فإنّه يستعمل الأعداد المعروفة في أغلب الأحيان ؛ لأنها تدلّ على العدد الدقيق لا التقريبيّ ، ولذا نراهم وهم يبيعون أو يشترون يعبّرون بتلك الأعداد ؛ لحاجتهم إلى بيان ثمن ما يشترونه بدقّة . أمّا حينما يحتاجون إلى بيانٍ تقريبيّ لبعض الأشياء دون الحاجة إلى عددها الحقيقيّ فقد يلجأون إلى الألفاظ اللغويّة ، وكثيراً ما يمرّ بنا في النصوص : بِضْعَة رجال ، جاءني نَفَر ، ذَوْدٌ من الإبل .
ومع ما في هذا الموضوع من جِدّةٍ ومخالفةٍ للشائع في الكلام العربيّ ، لكنّ كثيراً من تلك الألفاظ التي وجدناها معبّرةً عن الأعداد في بعض الكلام ، نجدها في كلامٍ آخر لا تعدو كونها كلماتٍ لغويّةً تعبّر عن جماعةٍ غير محدودة العدد ، ولا يخفى ما في الاختلاف في تفسيرات اللفظ الواحد من دلالةٍ على أنّ هذه الظاهرة اللغويّة – أعني التعبير باللفظ عن العدد – لم يتّفق عليها العرب على دلالتها عند استعمالها في كلامهم .
لطرافة هذا الموضوع آثرت دراسته ، محاولاً جمع تلك الألفاظ اللغويّة المعبّرة عن أحد الأعداد ، ثم تصنيفها على حقلها الدلاليّ ، وترتيبها ترتيباً هجائيّاً في حقلها ، ودراستها دراسةً لغويّةً ؛ لرصد وجوه الخلاف بين العلماء في دلالتها العدديّة ، ومعرفة الألفاظ المتقاربة منها ، والفروق بينها ، وأسباب لجوء العربيّ إليها في كلامه .
ويمكنني ذكر أسباب اختياري هذا الموضوع للبحث فيه ، وفيما يلي أهمّ الأسباب :
 - لم أجد فيما اطلعت عليه دراسةً تتناول هذه الظاهرة اللغويّة الغريبة ، حيث يترك العربيّ أسماء العدد المعلومة لبيان عدد الأشياء ، ويستعمل ألفاظاً لغويّةً بديلةً عنها .
- الرغبة في معرفة أسباب حدوث هذه الظاهرة ، وهل تحدث صدفةً أم لها سياقاتٌ معلومة ؟ .
- السعي إلى معرفة مدى التزام العرب بقصد العدد من تلك الألفاظ ، ومتى يتوسّعون فيها ليكتفوا بمعنى عامّ يعبّر عن المجموع التقريبيّ للأشياء التي يعبّرون عنها بتلك الألفاظ .

تميّز هذا البحث بحاجته إلى الدقّة وطول النظر ؛ لما اشتمل عليه من دلالاتٍ متداخلة ، وما وقع فيه من الخلاف الكبير حول دلالة كثير من تلك الألفاظ ، وقد بذلت وُسعي في لمّ أشتاته ، وجمع أطرافه ؛ لتقديم صورة مترابطة عن هذا النوع من الألفاظ اللغويّة ، ولم يكن العمل في هذا البحث سهلاً ؛ لتعلّقه بألفاظٍ لغويّةٍ أكثرها غريبٌ في استعماله ، مع ما سبّبه الخلاف حول معانيها من اضطراب الصورة عنها لديّ ، وأوجبَ عليّ إعادة النظر فيها والاجتهاد في اختيار الرأي حولها .
ومع ما في الموضوع من صعوبة لكنّي ألخّص أهمّ النتائج التي وصلت إليها في هذا البحث ، ليمكن البناء عليها ودراستها :
 - الفرق الجليّ بين أسماء العدد المعلومة في ميدان النحو ، والألفاظ اللغويّة الدالّة على العدد ، من حيث كثرة استعمالها في كلام العرب ، فتأتي أهميّة أسماء العدد من كون الكلام العربيّ لا يكاد يخلو منها ، ولا يستغني المتكلم عنها .
 - الفرق بين دلالاتهما ، فبينما تأتي أسماء العدد قاطعةً في دلالتها على العدد المراد ، تأتي الألفاظ اللغويّة غير قاطعة الدلالة على العدد ، وقد ظهر هذا من كثرة الخلاف في العدد المراد بها ، وتفاوت تفسيرهم لها بين دلالتها على العدد ، ودلالتها على الجماعة غير محدودة العدد .
 - استعمال العرب النوعين: أسماء العدد ، والألفاظ اللغويّة الدالّة على العدد، في سياقات مختلفة ، فهم يستعملون أسماء العدد حينما يريدون بيان عددٍ محدّد ، ويستعملون الألفاظ اللغويّة حينما يكون العدد المقصود تقريبيّاً ، أو يقصدون الدلالة على الجماعة دون تحديد .
- أكثر الألفاظ اللغويّة الدالّة على العدد تتعلّق بأكثر ما يُهمّ العربيّ في حياته ، فهم يستعملونها لبيان عدد الناس ، والإبل ، والخيل ، والغنم ، وبعض الحيوانات الأخرى ، لكنّ الإبل وهي النفيسة عند العرب كان لها النصيب الأكبر من تلك الألفاظ فقد بلغت ألفاظها قريباً من ثلاثةٍ وثلاثين ، وبلغت ألفاظ الناس تسعة عشر ، وألفاظ الغنم تسعة عشر ، وبقيتها أقل منها بكثير ، وهو دليل على أنّهم يلجأون إلى تلك الألفاظ للتعبير عن الأعداد التقريبيّة لما يكثر وروده في كلامهم .
- الاختلاف الكثير وتعدّد الآراء حول دلالات تلك الألفاظ على عددٍ ، أو تفسيرها بالجماعة دون عددٍ ، دليلٌ واضحٌ على أنّهم – في أغلب أحوالهم – يعنون بتلك الألفاظ الأعداد التقريبيّة لا الأعداد المحدّدة .
- الاتصال بين علوم اللغة المختلفة ، وبخاصّة النحو واللغة ، ففي هذا الموضوع يتقارب الميدانان في موضوعٍ يتعلّق بالعدد ، فمع وجود فاصل بين باب العدد في النحو ، وهذه الألفاظ اللغويّة الدالّة على العدد ، لكن بإمكاننا إقامة دراساتٍ لهذه القضايا للموازنة بينها في النحو واللغة .

في ختام هذا البحث أرجو أن أكون وضعت لبنةً في هذا الموضوع ؛ ليأتي باحثٌ آخر ليواصل دراسة هذه الظاهرة اللغويّة ومثيلاتها ، راجياً أن يتواصل البحث اللغويّ ليبرز ما استتر من خصائص لغتنا الكريمة ، والله من وراء القصد .

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عبد العزيز بن حميد الحميد

آخر تحديث: الثلاثاء, 09 أبريل 2013 15:37
 
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