الرئيسية | النادي الأدبي | بحوث أدبية | وحدة القـصيدة - د. محمد بن سليمان القسومي
 

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وحدة القـصيدة - د. محمد بن سليمان القسومي طباعة إرسال إلى صديق
تصنيفات: بحوث أدبية
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الجمعة, 04 يوليو 2008 11:24

ظل مفهوم وحدة القصيدة في أدبنا العربي غامضاً, وزاد في ذلك تباين الآراء في تطبيق هذا المفهوم ؛ فاختلطت وحدة الموضوع والوحدة المنطقية( البنائية ) بالوحدة العضوية لدى بعض النقاد. وهذه المقالة محاولة لبلورة مفهوم هذه المصطلحات, والخروج بمفهوم شامل, لا يقف عند النظرة الجزئية لمثل هذه القضية الشائكة , التي نالت أهمية كبرى في نقدنا الحديث .
فمما لاشك فيه أن النص إذا كان في موضوع واحد فهو ذو وحدة موضوعية ؛ فتكون القصيدة في المديح , أو الوصف , أو الرثاء ...إلخ. ويرى بعض الباحثين أن الشعر العربي القديم يحتوي على وحدة نفسية ؛ أي أن الشاعر ينتقل من موضوع إلى موضوع وفق تخطيط ذكي هدفه شد القلوب والأسماع إليه . وهذا تبرير لعدم وجود وحدة موضوعية في شعرنا القديم .
بل إن الاتجاه السائد لدى النقاد والباحثين قدماء ومحدثين هو أن مقدمة القصيدة لا تخرج عن نطاق غرضها ومضمونها من ناحية الدلالة النفسية ؛ فالشاعر يمدح راجياً رضا الممدوح, وما يترتب على هذا الرضا ؛ من أجل ذلك يحاول أن يشد انتباهه لسماع القصيدة والانفعال بها, كما أن المقدمة تهيئ المتلقين للانفعال بمعاني القصيدة . يقول ابن رشيق :" للشعراء مذاهب في افتتاح القصائد بالنسيب ؛ لما فيه من عطف القلوب, واستدعاء القبول بحسب ما في الطباع من حب الغزل , والميل إلى اللهو ... وإن ذلك استدراج إلى ما بعده". وهو بذلك تابع لما ذكره ابن قتيبة من أن " مقصد القصيد إنما ابتدأ فيها بذكر الديار... ثم وصل ذلك بالنسيب؛ فشكا شدة الوجد , وألم الفراق, وفرط الصبابة, والشوق؛ ليميل نحوه القلوب , ويصرف إليه الوجوه , وليستدعي به إصغاء الأسماع إليه ؛ لأن التشبيب قريب من النفوس , لائط بالقلوب ... فإذا علم أنه قد استوثق من الإصغاء إليه والاستماع له, عقب بإيجاب الحقوق, فرحل في شعره, وشكا النصب والسهر... فإذا علم أنه قد أوجب على صاحبه حق الرجاء وذمامة التأميل , وقرر عنده ما ناله من المكاره في المسير, بدأ في المديح ".

وإذا كانت هذه الأقوال تهدف إلى غاية واحدة هي الاتجاه إلى المخاطب ومحاولة التأثير فيه , فإن ثمة آراء أخرى ترى أن المقدمة تعبر عن نفسية الشاعر حين إنشائها ؛ فعندما " يسيطر عليه غرض خاص , يخيم عليه جو يناسب هذا الغرض , وحينئذٍ يكون الغزل الذي في مفتتح القصيدة مسيطراً عليه هذا الجو ؛ فيكون فرحاً إن كانت القصيدة فرحة, وحزناً إن كانت حزينة , ومفتخراً إن كانت فخراً , ومعاتباً إن كانت عتاباً ".
ومما ينبغي الالتفات إليه إدراك أن الوحدة الموضوعية تتحقق بمراعاة مقتضى الحال , أي الغرض الأساس من القصيدة ؛ ولذلك سمى القدامى موضوعات الشعر أغراضاً ؛ لأنها المقاصد الأولى للمتكلمين , فلا بأس إذن أن يحشد الشاعر أفكاراً ثانوية , كالحكم والأمثال المعبرة عن معان منسجمة مع السياق . فليست وحدة الموضوع أن يكون النص مديحاً أو رثاءً أو غزلاً فحسب , بل أن يراعي القائل المناسبة ؛ فإذا رثى - مثلاً- بكى صاحبه وذم الدنيا وحث على الزهد , وإن مدح قائداً وصف المعركة وهجا الخصم ...
والحقيقة أن الوحدة الموضوعية لم تكن محل خلاف كبير بين النقاد كشأن الوحدة العضوية التي اختلفوا في فهمها, وكانوا أكثر اختلافاً عند تطبيقها ؛ حتى أصبحنا نتلقى أسماء عديدة لهذا المصطلح كالوحدة الشعرية , والوحدة الفنية , والوحدة الموضوعية , والوحدة الحيوية , وغيرها .
وهذه نتيجة طبعية لتنوع ثقافاتهم واختلاف مفاهيمهم . ومن يمعن الفكر في تناول النقاد للوحدة العضوية , يدرك أن مفهومها قد اختلط بالوحدة المنطقية لدى طائفة منهم ؛ وما ذاك إلا أن بعض النقاد قد اكتفوا بالتسلسل المنطقي بين أجزاء القصيدة ؛ فالوحدة العضوية - في نظرهم - متحققة مادام الشاعر قد رتب الأجزاء بحيث لا نستطيع أن نقدم جزءًا على جزء , أو معنى على معنى .
ولاشك أن هذا الترتيب التسلسلي المنطقي من عوامل تكون الوحدة العضوية , ولكنه ليس كل ما تعنيه مالم نجد نموًّا عضويًّا , وتطوراً مطرداً بين الأجزاء في وحدة عاطفية تربط أجزاء القصيدة برباط نفسي واحد , تصبح فيه كل فكرة من فِكَر القصيدة ذات صلة قوية بموضوعها , بل ينبغي أن يكون كل بيت كذلك . وهذا مخالف لما يراه بعض النقاد من عيب في الاعتداد بالبيت ؛ إذ إنهم حينما يتحدثون عن أجزاء القصيدة يعنون بالجزء الفكرة , أو القسم من أقسام القصيدة.
ومما زاد من اضطراب مفهوم الوحدة العضوية عند جمهور المثقفين والمتأدبين تلك الآراء المتباينة المبثوثة في نتاج أساطين النقد الحديث كطه حسين , والعقاد , ومحمد مندور, ومحمد غنيمي هلال , ومحمد النويهي , وشوقي ضيف ,ومصطفى بدوي , ويوسف بكار , وغيرهم . وحسبنا أن نعلم أن طه حسين والعقاد لم يسلما من اللوم بعدم فهمهما الوحدة العضوية , وأنهما قد خلطا في تطبيقهما بين الوحدة الموضوعية , والمنطقية , والعضوية .
ومن المسلم به أن الوحدة العضوية تقوم على أساس من الوحدة الموضوعية والوحدة المنطقية , لكنها تتجاوزهما إلى وحدة البناء الذي لا يستقل فيه جزء – سواء أكان بيتاً أو قسماً من أقسام القصيدة –عما سبقه ولحقه .
وعلى الرغم من أن وحدة الجو النفسي في القصيدة من عوامل تكوين الوحدة العضوية , فإن ذلك أيضاً وإن توافر في كثير من القصائد ليس كافياً مالم يكن ثمة التزام في " ترتيب الصور والأفكار ترتيباً به تتقدم القصيدة شيئاً فشيئاً حتى تنتهي إلى خاتمة يستلزمها ترتيب الأفكار والصور , على أن تكون أجزاء القصيدة كالبنية الحية لكل جزء وظيفته فيها , ويؤدي بعضها إلى بعض عن طريق التسلسل في التفكير والمشاعر".
وغني عن البيان – بعد ذلك كله- أن الوحدة العضوية يمكن أن تتحقق في القصيدة ذات الفنون الشعرية المتعددة مادامت هذه الفنون مسوقة من خلال وحدة عاطفية , أو تجربة عاطفية شاملة أجزاء القصيدة بصبغة نفسية واحدة ؛ أي أن يكون بين الموضوعات (الأجزاء) انسجام في العاطفة المسيطرة " فليست الوحدة العضوية [إذن] أن تتوالى أبيات في موضوع بعينه , ولكنها أبعد من ذلك عمقاً ؛ إذ لابد أن تصور الأبيات في قصيدتها حدثاً وجدانيًّا تامًّـا تتدرج فيه , بل قد تتخلق تخلقاً نامياً على نحو ما يتخلق الجنين تخلقاً كاملاً ".
وطبعي أننا لا نكاد نجدها في كثير من شعرنا الغنائي ؛ لأنها ليست شرطاً ينبغي أن تتوافر فيه . ولا يعني هذا عدم وجودها في هذا النوع من الشعر؛ إذ إنها يمكن أن تتحقق فيه , لكن إخضاعه لها , ومطالبة الشاعر بتحقيقها هو ما لا ينبغي التشدد فيه.
وهي في الأدب القصصي واجبة ؛ لأنها أصل من أصوله . وإذا كان من الواجب على الشاعر أن يبني قصيدته ذات الطابع القصصي بناء عضويًّا دقيقاً ؛ فمن التعسف أن نطالبه فيها في الشعر الغنائي الذي لا ينحو منحًى قصصيًّا .
ومن يرجع الطرف في شعرنا العربي قديمه وحديثه ؛ يلحظ أن الوحدة العضوية واضحة في بعض نماذجه , مثل : قصيدة الحطيئة التي تكلم فيها على الكرم العربي ؛ تلك القصيدة التي يقول في مطلعها :

وطاوي ثلاث عاصب البطن مرملٍ ** بتيهاء لم يعرف بها ساكن رسما 

وكذلك قصيدة ابن الرومي التي عاتب فيها صديقه أبا القاسم التوزي الشطرنجي , إذ يقول في مطلعها :

يا أخي أين ريع ذاك اللقاءِ ** أين ما كان بيننا من صفاءِ

 

ومن القصائد الحديثة التي تتضح فيها الوحدة العضوية ( المساء ) لخليل مطران , و( أخي ) لميخائيل نعيمة , وغيرهما .

 

د. محمد بن سليمان القسومي / كلية اللغة العربية بجامعة الإمام محمد بن سعود الإسلامية - الرياض

 
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