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الرئيسية | النادي اللغوي | بحوث نحوية | التقديم والتأخير في النحو العربي

صفحة شبكة صوت العربية في فيسبوكtwitterقناة شبكة صوت العربية في يوتيوبشبكة صوت العربية في موقع فليكر

التقديم والتأخير في النحو العربي طباعة إرسال إلى صديق
تصنيفات: بحوث نحوية
تقييم المستخدمين: / 42
الكاتب د. صالح الشاعر   
الاثنين, 02 يناير 2012 18:42

 التقديم والتأخير في النحو العربي:

مفهوم التقديم والتأخير :

يراد بالتقديم والتأخير أن تخالف عناصر التركيب ترتيبها الأصليّ في السياق فيتقدَّم ما الأصل فيه أن يتأخَّر ويتأخَّر ما الأصل فيه أن يتقدَّم . والحاكم للترتيب الأصليّ بين عنصرين يختلف إذا كان الترتيب لازمًا أو غير لازم ، فهو في الترتيب اللازم ( الرتبة المحفوظة ) حاكمٌ صناعيٌّ نحويّ ، أمَّا في غير اللازم ( الرتبة غير المحفوظة ) فيكاد يكون شيئًا غير محدَّد ، ولكن توجد بعض الأسباب العامَّة الَّتي قد تفسِّر الترتيب الأصليّ – بنوعيه – بين عنصرين ، وهي مختلفة في اعتباراتها ، فمنها ما اعتباره معنويّ ، ومنها ما اعتباره لفظيّ ، أو منطقيّ ، أو صناعيّ ، ومن أهمّ هذه الأسباب :

1- أن تكون العلاقة بين العنصرين علاقة المحكوم عليه بالحكم ، فمقتضى الأصل أن يتقدَّم المحكوم عليه ويتأخَّر الحكم ، كتقدُّم المبتدإ على الخبر .

2- أن تكون العلاقة بينهما علاقة العامل بالمعمول ، فمقتضى الأصل أن يتقدَّم العامل ويتأخَّر المعمول ، كتقدُّم الفعل على المفعول .

3- أن تكون العلاقة بينهما علاقة المقدِّمة بالنتيجة ، فمقتضى الأصل أن تتقدَّم المقدِّمة وتتأخَّر النتيجة ، كتقدُّم فعل الشرط على جواب الشرط .

4- أن تكون العلاقة بينهما علاقة الكلِّ بالجزء المقتطَع منه ، فمقتضى الأصل أن يتقدَّم الكلُّ ويتأخَّر الجزء ، كتقدُّم المُستثنى منه على المُستثنى .

5- أن يكون تقدُّم عنصرٍ ضروريًّا لحفظ تقسـيمٍ معلوم من اللغة بالضرورة ، كتقدُّم الفعل على الفاعل ؛ لما عُلم من وجود جملة فعليَّة تقف جنبًا إلى جنب مع الجملة الاسميَّة مكوِّنةً معها أساسًا ثنائيًّا لورود الجمل .

 وللتقديم والتأخير علَّة هي الرتبة ، فالرتبة مبدأٌ نحـويٌّ لولاه لم يكن ثَمَّ تقديمٌ ولا تأخير ، فما الرتبة ؟ وما أنواعها ؟

الرتبة قرينةٌ نحويَّةٌ من قرائن المعنى ، يمكن تعريفها بأنَّها جزءٌ من النظام النحويِّ ” يحدِّد موقع الكلمة من بناء الجملة ” ويفرض لكلمتين بينهما ارتباط أن تأتي إحداهما أوَّلاً والأخرى ثانيًا ، ويمتنع العكس إذا كانت الرتبة محفوظة ، أمَّا إذا كانت الرتبة غير محفوظة فيجوز أن تتقدَّم إحدى الكلمتين في تعبيرٍ وتتأخَّر في تعبيرٍ آخر من غير اتِّصاف أحد التعبيرين بالخطأ النحويِّ .

وهناك تجاذبٌ بين الرتبة والإعراب ، فالرتبة في اللغات غير الإعرابيَّة تُحدِّد الوظيفة التركيبيَّة لأجزاء الجملة ، أمَّا في اللغات الإعرابيَّة فتظهر مرونة الرتبة وإتاحتها حرِّيَّة الحركة لتلك الأجـزاء ؛بسـبب تكفُّل الإعـراب بتحديد الوظيفة التركيبيَّة لها ، فإذا خفي الإعراب انتفى ذلك ووجب الالتزام بالرتبة .

والفرق بين الرتبة المحفوظة وغير المحفوظة أنَّ الترتيب السياقيَّ للكلمات في حالة الرتبة المحفوظة يُراعى في نظام اللغة وفي الاستعمال ، ولا يقع خلافه إلاَّ موصوفًا بالخطأ النحويِّ ، أمَّا في حالة الرتبة غير المحفوظة فترتيب الكلمات في السياق أصلٌ افتراضيٌّ اتَّخذه النظام النحويُّ ، وقد يُحتِّم الاستعمال – حسب المقام والغرض – خلافه بتقديم المتأخِّر .

ويُوصَف العنصر المتقدِّم في الرتبة المحفوظة بأنَّه متقدِّم وجوبًا – ومن ذلك تقدُّم الموصـول على الصلة ، والموصـوف على الصـفة ، وحرف الجرِّ على المجرور ، وغيرها– أمَّا في الرتبة غير المحفوظـة – كالَّتي بين المبتدإ والخبر ، والفاعل والمفعـول به ، والضمير والمرجع ، وغير ذلك – فالتقديم والتأخير اختيارٌ أسـلوبيٌّ جائزٌ للمتكلِّم بحسـب ما يعبِّر عن غرضه ويُفهِم معناه المقصود.

وقد يُلغى هذا الاخـتيار وتُحـفَظ الرتبة ؛ إمَّا لاتِّقاء لبس ، كما في ( ضرب موسى عيسى ) ، أو لاتِّقاء مخالفة القاعدة ، كما في (رأيتُكَ) ، فانتقال الرتبة من دائرة الرتبة غير المحفوظة إلى دائرة الرتبة المحفوظة أمرٌ وارد .

والفرق بين الرتبة المحفوظة والرتبة غير المحفوظة هو عينه الفرق بين الواجب والجائز في النحو ؛ فالتقديم في الرتبة المحفوظة حكمٌ تركيبيٌّ نحويٌّ صِرف لا مجال فيه لاختيار المتكلِّم ، فهو إمَّا جارٍ على القاعدة بحفظها ، أو مخالفٌ للقاعدة مخلٌّ بسلامة التركيب بإهماله لها ، أمَّا الرتبة غير المحفوظة فالتقديم فيها أمرٌ اختياريٌّ يمكِّن من التصرُّف في العبارة ؛ لأنَّه يصبح وسيلة أسلوبيَّة تُستجلب بها المعاني وتُقلَّب العبارة لتناسب مقتضى الحال ، ولهذا دار البحث البلاغيُّ في علم المعاني حول الرتبة غير المحفوظة .

مخالفة الأصل فيهما :

ينطلق الحـديث عن التقـديم والتأخير من منطلـق الرتبة الَّتي منها – كما أسلفت – رتبة محفوظة لا تُخالَف إلاَّ خطأً وانحرافًا عن النظام السياقيِّ ، ورتبة غير محفوظة قد تُراعَى وقد لا تُراعَى .

والترتيب الَّذي جعله النظام النحويُّ أصلاً في الرتبة غير المحفوظة لا يُسأل عن علَّته في غالب الأحيان ، وإنَّما يُسأل عمَّا جاء على خلافه : لمَ خالف ؟ وما الغاية من الخلاف ؟ فالتقديم والتأخير نوعٌ من التصرُّف في التركيب والعدول عن أصل ترتيب عناصره لغاية بيانيَّة معنويَّة ، وهذا التصرُّف لا يكون اعتباطًا لغير علَّة وإلاَّ كان جورًا على التركيب ومعناه وإفسادًا للكلام بأسره .

حاصل القول في ظاهرة التقديم والتأخير ( الجائز ) أنَّها تفتقر إلى أمور :

الأوَّل : تحديد الأصل في ترتيب عناصر التركيب .

الثاني : تحديد العدول عن الأصل في هذا الترتيب .

الآخر : البحث عن علَّة هذا العدول وتأثيره في المعنى والدلالة .

أغراض التقديم :

للتقديم أغراض متعدِّدة متنوِّعة ، يتعيَّن أحدها بحسب العنصر المقدَّم ، وبحسب المقامات والأحوال ، إلاَّ أنَّ الغرض الأوَّل من تقديم عنصرٍ ما هو كون ذكره أهمّ من ذكر باقي أجزاء الكلام ، والعناية به أكثر من العناية بذكر غيره ، وهو ما عبَّر عنه سيبويه بقوله في الفاعل والمفعول : ” … يقدِّمون الَّذي بيانه أهمُّ لهم وهم ببيانه أعنى ، وإن كانا جميعًا يُهِمَّانهم ويعنيانهم ” ، وجعله الإمام عبد القاهر قاعدةً للتقديم بقوله : ” … لم نجدهم اعتمدوا فيه شيئًا يجري مجرى الأصل غير العناية والاهتمام ” ، إلاَّ أنَّه أكَّد أنَّ الاقتصار على العناية والاهتمام لا يكفي لبيان سبب تقديم لفظٍ ما ، بل يجب أن يُفسَّر وجه العناية فيه وسبب أهمِّيَّته الَّتي جعلته يتقدَّم في حين تأخَّر غيره .

وما دام القول بالعناية وحدها لا يكفي فقد ذكر العلماء من الأغراض ما يُعدُّ وجوهًا لهذه العناية ؛ ففيها تفسيرٌ لها وتعليل ، وليس فيها حجرٌ على غيرها من الأغراض ؛ فلكلِّ سياقٍ خواصُّه ، ولكلِّ تقديمٍ أسراره .

وممَّا ذكروه من أغراض تقديم الخبر المفرد على المبتدإ :

1- التخصيص ، كأن يقول أحد : زيد إمَّا قائم أو قاعد ، ” فيردِّده بين القيام والقعود من غير أن يخصصه بأحدهما ” ، فالردُّ عليه يكون بتقديم الخبر لتخصيص المبتدإ به ، فيقال : قائمٌ هو

2- الافتخار ، نحو : ” تميميٌّ أنا ” ، فتقديم الخبر هنا ” يُفهَم منه معنى لا يُفهَم بتأخيره ” ، وهو الافتخار – أو غيره كالتخصيص في مقام آخر – فيجب التقديم مراعاةً للمعنى والغرض .

3- التفاؤل أو التشاؤم ، مثل : ناجحٌ زيدٌ ، ومقتولٌ إبراهيم .

ومن أغراض تقديم الخبر الظرف والجارّ والمجرور :

1- الاختصاص ، نحو قول الله تعالى : ﴿ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَلَـهُ الْحَمْدُ ﴾ ، فالغرض من التقديم هنا بيان ” اختصاص الملك والحمد بالله عزَّ وجلَّ ” لا بغيره . ويجب التنبيه هنا إلى أنَّ التقديم للاختصاص ليس مقصورًا على كون المقدَّم ظرفًا والمؤخَّر مبتدأ ؛ فقد ” كاد أهل البيان يُطبقون على أنَّ تقديم المعمول يفيد الحصر ، سـواء كان مفعـولاً أو ظرفًا أو مجرورًا ، ولهذا قيل في ﴿ إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ ﴾ : معناه : نخصُّك بالعبادة والاستعانة ” .

2- التنبيه من أوَّل الأمر على أنَّ الظرف خبرٌ لا نعت ، كما في قول الشاعر : له هـممٌ لا منتهى لكبارها وهمَّته الصغرى أجلُّ من الدهر فإنَّه ” لو أخَّر فقال : هممٌ له ، لتُوُهِّم أنَّه صفة ” ، فقدَّم الخبر للتنبيه وإزالة الوهم .

ولتقديم المبتدإ على الفعل أغراض كثيرة ، منها :

1- التخصيص بالخبر الفعليِّ ، نحو : أنا سعيتُ في حاجتك ؛ لإفادة الانفراد بالسعي وعدم الشركة فيه .

2- تحقيق الأمر وإزالة الشكِّ ، نحو : هو يعطي الجزيل ، فليس الغرض هنا ادِّعاء اختصـاصه بذلك دون غيره ، وإنَّما الغرض تأكيد المعنى في نفس السامع .

3- تعجيل مسـرَّة السامع أو مسـاءته ، نحو : خليلك عاد من السفر ، ونحو : الكئيب يزورك اليوم . وغير ذلك من الأغراض .

 قيمة التقديم والتأخير :

ظاهرة التقديم والتأخير – شـأن الظواهر السـياقيَّة الأخرى كالحذف والزيادة وغيرها – مظهرٌ من مظاهر شجاعة العربيَّة ؛ ففيها إقدام على مخالفة لقرينة من قرائن المعنى من غير خشـية لبس ، اعتمادًا على قرائن أخرى ، ووصولاً بالعبارة إلى دلالاتٍ وفوائد تجعلها عبارةً راقيةً ذات رونقٍ وجمال .

والقيمة البيانيَّة للتقديم والتأخير مرتبطةٌ بالجائز منه ، ومرهونةٌ بحسن استعماله على وفق مقتضى الحال ، والوعي باستعماله في موضعه ، وإلاَّ كان عبثًا لا قيمة له ولا فائدة بل ربَّما يؤدِّي إلى إفساد المعنى .

والأغراض الَّتي تتفتَّق عنها ظاهـرة التقديم تبيِّن ثراءها وكثرة فوائـدها ، وكونها منبعًا ثرًّا لرقيِّ الأساليب وارتفاعها في البيان . فلا عجب حين نرى احتفاء الإمام عبد القاهر الجرجاني بهذه الظاهرة في قوله عن بابها : ” هو بابٌ كثير الفوائد ، جمُّ المحاسن ، واسع التصرُّف ، بعيد الغاية ، لا يزال يفترُّ لك عن بديعة ، ويفضي بك إلى لطيفة ، ولا تزال ترى شعرًا يروقك مسمعُه ، ويَلطُف لديك موقعُه ، ثم تنظر فتجد سبب أن راقك ولطف عندك أن قُدِّم فيه شيءٌ وحُوِّل اللفظ عن مكان إلى مكان ”

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